Chapters 1-3 Summaries
Aria S Duenas
the subject of psychology is introduced in the first chapter of Psychology Themes & Variations
is described as the science of the mind, makeup of the brain, behavior, things
that people do and why they do it, anatomy of the human body, organs, and
glandular system and any other studies of that kind. Psychology originated
from Philosophy in 1879 and the father of modern psychology was Wilhelm Wundt.
Wundt created a laboratory in Leipzig Germany that was the first psychological
research facility. Psychology is broken down into different classifications such
as structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, and humanism. Structuralists
look at the structures we can identify with our senses and analyze consciousness.
Functionalists such as William James looked at the “why”, the outcome and
purposes of something. James wrote The Principles
of Psychology and believed that the mind is a flow of thoughts and ideas
that stream from the consciousness, functionalists also study how humans adapt
and function in their environments. The founders of behaviorism were John B.
Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B.F. Skinner. Behaviorists study behavior, free-will,
opportunity cost, and explored the stimuli in animals by experimenting with laboratory
animals as their subjects. Humanists believe that humans are unique and have
unique qualities, freedoms, and are able to grow. Humanists study humans in
their natural environment and think that humans have a lot of good within us.
Ivan Pavlov started his studies around 1906, was very dedicated to his craft, experimented
on salivating dogs, and focused strictly on research. Freud believed our
development from birth until right now makes up how we behave.