Analyzing triggers audiences to reply, increasing overall engagement.[9] Psycholinguistics,

Analyzing the political world through
a cultural lens allows us to see that politics are framed because reported
events are pre-organized and do not come to us in raw form.1 For
decades, social scientists have repeatedly shown that the political judgment of
a particular issue often depends on how that topic is framed and communicated
to citizens.2

Framing, and the alignment of
multiple frames, can be used to achieve mobilization. “Mobilization aims at
persuading people to contribute resources, such as time, commitment, knowledge,
and money, to support a mobilization actor.”3 A
prerequisite for successful mobilization is identification within the group,
where frames can link to one another through shared understandings (Snow &
Benford, 1988).4
“Micromobilization concerns the interaction mechanisms by which individual and
sociocultural levels are brought together. It draws especially on those
long-standing social psychological traditions that illuminate the operation of
face-to-face encounters and group dynamics.”5

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Emotionally Laden Terminology
and Phrasing

Hamilton and Stewart (1993), refer
to affectiveness as the degree of emotional expression in messages.6
“It has been found that the degree of affectiveness helps to magnify the
vividness of information and make the position of the sources seem more
As a result, the communication of information through brief messages, tweets,
and headlines with a high level of affectiveness, greatly interests readers.8
At an emotional level, sentimental messages create feelings of warmth and
intimacy, magnifying the effort of user-input, which triggers audiences to
reply, increasing overall engagement.9

Psycholinguistics, the study of the
psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use,
comprehend and produce language,10
now plays a big role in more than just political communications. For example,
all around the world tech companies are racing to perfect a life-like voice
interface system for virtual assistants like Alexa, Siri, and Cortana. When
developing artificial intelligence infrastructures that bring life to automated
machines, engineers “take into account, that speech conveys not just nouns and
verbs-but also emotion. IBM, for example, infers the emotional content of words
by using its Watson deep learning technology.”11
Ironically enough, program engineers who design A.I. interfaces are not much
different than the producers who craft news headlines—both, the engineers, and
the media producers cannot accurately program their content into a host unless
they have accounted for the type of emotional response a particular word is
expected to evoke.

Noam Chomsky famously once said that
language is the basic expression of man’s ability to transcend his environment.12
Chomsky attested that language was the innate mind-brain component that
converts experience to a system of knowledge13 and
that the misuse or control of language is problematic.14 By
deconstructing emotionally laden language in politicized media headlines,
voters will become immunized from the lexical manipulation of one’s emotions
and be overall less persuaded by manufactured narratives which are crafted to
appeal and align with a target audience’s existing belief system.

How Credibility Affects the
Communication of Information

speaking, the average person does not witness news events first-hand or have
direct exposure to the political realm, yet people still rely on the
experiences of others to obtain information.15
“Likewise, much of our decision-making stems not from individual rationality but
from shared group-level narratives. (Sloman & Fernbach, 2017) As a result,
our receptivity to information and misinformation depends less . . . on
rational evaluation and more on heuristics and social processes.”16
Considering that, naturally, humans are biased information-seekers, it is
important to note that correcting misinformation does not necessarily change
people’s beliefs (Nyhan and Reigler, 2010; Flynn et al., 2016). In some cases,
when people are presented with information that challenges their existing
belief system, defensive instincts kick in and they burrow themselves further
into their initial beliefs.17

The most reliable way to change
someone’s beliefs is to have them weigh new information and realize the new
reality for themselves. But what is there to do when the credulousness of news
stories no longer carries weight? How can partisan actors convince the other
side whose information is right and whose is wrong? Rather than ask ourselves
how misinformation can be combatted, partisan figures should instead be asking
how they can eliminate its appeal. Encouraging voters to be skeptical of the
credibility of biased information promotes informational equality by
constricting the permeability of groupthink and its effects on individuals’ blind
willingness to trust.

1             Id. at 67.

2             Druckman,
J.N. “The Implications of Framing Effects for Citizen Competence” Political Behavior.  Kluwer
Academic Publishers. vol. 23, pp. 225. (2001).

3           Bekkers, Victor, Edwards, Arthur, Moody, Rebecca.
“Micro-Mobilization, Social Media and Coping Strategies” Erasmus University
Rotterdam. pp. 3 (2010). link

4           Id.

5           Morris, Aldon D., Mueller, Carol McClurg. “Frontiers in
Social Movement Theory” Yale University
Press (1992) pp. 71. Link

6           Zhang, Lun, Peng, Tai-Quan, Zhang, Ya-Peng, Wang, Xiao-Hong,
Zhu, Jonathan J.H. “Content or Context: Which matters more in information
processing on microblogging sites?” Computers
in Human Behavior. vol. 31. pp. 242 (2014). Dept. of Journalism &
Science Communication, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan
Avenue, Shijingshan District, Beijing, China. Citing Hamilton & Stewart, 1993. Heading 3. link

7             Id. Citing
(Huffaker, 2010).

8             Id. Citing; (Nisbett & Ross, 1980).

9             Id. Citing: (Schweiger & Quiring,

10           Nordquist, Richard.
“psycholinguistics.” ThoughtCo, Apr. 25, 2017, link

11           Brown, A. S.
(2016). Talk to me. Mechanical
Engineering, 138(11), 32-37. Retrieved from link

12           Chomsky,
Noam. “Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use” Greenwood Publishing
Group. Business & Economics. pp. xv (1986). link

13           Id. at xxvi

14           Id. at xxviii—knowledge of language.

15         Lazer, David, Baum, Matthew, Grinberg, Nir, Friedland, Lisa,
Joseph, Kenneth, Hobbs, Will and Mattsson, Carolina. “Combating Fake News: An
Agenda for Research and Action” Northeastern University. Harvard University.
pp. 6 (2017). link

16           Id. at page 6.

17           Id.