Analyzing the political world througha cultural lens allows us to see that politics are framed because reportedevents are pre-organized and do not come to us in raw form.1 Fordecades, social scientists have repeatedly shown that the political judgment ofa particular issue often depends on how that topic is framed and communicatedto citizens.2Framing, and the alignment ofmultiple frames, can be used to achieve mobilization. “Mobilization aims atpersuading people to contribute resources, such as time, commitment, knowledge,and money, to support a mobilization actor.”3 Aprerequisite for successful mobilization is identification within the group,where frames can link to one another through shared understandings (Snow &Benford, 1988).4″Micromobilization concerns the interaction mechanisms by which individual andsociocultural levels are brought together. It draws especially on thoselong-standing social psychological traditions that illuminate the operation offace-to-face encounters and group dynamics.”5 Emotionally Laden Terminology and PhrasingHamilton and Stewart (1993), referto affectiveness as the degree of emotional expression in messages.
6″It has been found that the degree of affectiveness helps to magnify thevividness of information and make the position of the sources seem moreextreme.”7As a result, the communication of information through brief messages, tweets,and headlines with a high level of affectiveness, greatly interests readers.8At an emotional level, sentimental messages create feelings of warmth andintimacy, magnifying the effort of user-input, which triggers audiences toreply, increasing overall engagement.9 Psycholinguistics, the study of thepsychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use,comprehend and produce language,10now plays a big role in more than just political communications.
For example,all around the world tech companies are racing to perfect a life-like voiceinterface system for virtual assistants like Alexa, Siri, and Cortana. Whendeveloping artificial intelligence infrastructures that bring life to automatedmachines, engineers “take into account, that speech conveys not just nouns andverbs-but also emotion. IBM, for example, infers the emotional content of wordsby using its Watson deep learning technology.
“11Ironically enough, program engineers who design A.I. interfaces are not muchdifferent than the producers who craft news headlines—both, the engineers, andthe media producers cannot accurately program their content into a host unlessthey have accounted for the type of emotional response a particular word isexpected to evoke. Noam Chomsky famously once said thatlanguage is the basic expression of man’s ability to transcend his environment.12Chomsky attested that language was the innate mind-brain component thatconverts experience to a system of knowledge13 andthat the misuse or control of language is problematic.14 Bydeconstructing emotionally laden language in politicized media headlines,voters will become immunized from the lexical manipulation of one’s emotionsand be overall less persuaded by manufactured narratives which are crafted toappeal and align with a target audience’s existing belief system.How Credibility Affects the Communication of Information Generallyspeaking, the average person does not witness news events first-hand or havedirect exposure to the political realm, yet people still rely on theexperiences of others to obtain information.
15″Likewise, much of our decision-making stems not from individual rationality butfrom shared group-level narratives. (Sloman & Fernbach, 2017) As a result,our receptivity to information and misinformation depends less . . . onrational evaluation and more on heuristics and social processes.
“16Considering that, naturally, humans are biased information-seekers, it isimportant to note that correcting misinformation does not necessarily changepeople’s beliefs (Nyhan and Reigler, 2010; Flynn et al., 2016). In some cases,when people are presented with information that challenges their existingbelief system, defensive instincts kick in and they burrow themselves furtherinto their initial beliefs.17The most reliable way to changesomeone’s beliefs is to have them weigh new information and realize the newreality for themselves.
But what is there to do when the credulousness of newsstories no longer carries weight? How can partisan actors convince the otherside whose information is right and whose is wrong? Rather than ask ourselveshow misinformation can be combatted, partisan figures should instead be askinghow they can eliminate its appeal. Encouraging voters to be skeptical of thecredibility of biased information promotes informational equality byconstricting the permeability of groupthink and its effects on individuals’ blindwillingness to trust.1 Id. at 67.2 Druckman,J.N. “The Implications of Framing Effects for Citizen Competence” Political Behavior.
KluwerAcademic Publishers. vol. 23, pp. 225. (2001).
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015006907312 3 Bekkers, Victor, Edwards, Arthur, Moody, Rebecca.
“Micro-Mobilization, Social Media and Coping Strategies” Erasmus UniversityRotterdam. pp. 3 (2010). link 4 Id.5 Morris, Aldon D.
, Mueller, Carol McClurg. “Frontiers inSocial Movement Theory” Yale UniversityPress (1992) pp. 71. Link 6 Zhang, Lun, Peng, Tai-Quan, Zhang, Ya-Peng, Wang, Xiao-Hong,Zhu, Jonathan J.H. “Content or Context: Which matters more in informationprocessing on microblogging sites?” Computersin Human Behavior.
vol. 31. pp. 242 (2014).
Dept. of Journalism &Science Communication, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 YuquanAvenue, Shijingshan District, Beijing, China. Citing Hamilton & Stewart, 1993. Heading 3. link7 Id.
Citing(Huffaker, 2010). 8 Id. Citing; (Nisbett & Ross, 1980).9 Id. Citing: (Schweiger & Quiring,2005).
10 Nordquist, Richard.”psycholinguistics.” ThoughtCo, Apr. 25, 2017, link11 Brown, A.
S.(2016). Talk to me. MechanicalEngineering, 138(11), 32-37. Retrieved from link12 Chomsky,Noam. “Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use” Greenwood PublishingGroup. Business & Economics.
pp. xv (1986). link13 Id.
at xxvi14 Id. at xxviii—knowledge of language. 15 Lazer, David, Baum, Matthew, Grinberg, Nir, Friedland, Lisa,Joseph, Kenneth, Hobbs, Will and Mattsson, Carolina.
“Combating Fake News: AnAgenda for Research and Action” Northeastern University. Harvard University.pp. 6 (2017).
link16 Id. at page 6.17 Id.