American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon A.
) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are perennial flowering plants from the family Ericaceae of the genus Vaccinium, cranberry and commercial varieties of blueberries are native to eastern and central North America including the eastern territories of Canada (Trehane, 2004). Commercial production of vaccinium species in the United States of America has existed since the latter part of the eighteenth century (Eck, 1990). While wild blueberry (Vaccinium murtillus) and wild cranberry are one of the most popular wild-harvested fruits in many North countries, traditionally used as healthy food as well as in folk medicine.
Headaches, fever, eye problems, diarrhea and other problems have all apparently been eased or cured by various vacciniums. Unfortunately, there are wide fluctuations in yields from year to year depending on several factors. Yields of wild berries are often reduced by insufficient water in summer, winter damage and competition from other plant species (Karlsons & Osvalde, 2017).Many species of Vaccinum have a long history of being used for medical purposes.
Recent advances in nutrition science have shown that diet has a potential effect on human health and development, dietary guidance is persistent in recommending greater consumption of fruit and vegetables to promote health (Blumberg et al., 2016; Istek & Gurbuz, 2017). Cranberry and blueberry fruits are rich sources of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, organic acids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonol glycosides, vitamin C, sugars, carbohydrates as well as dietary fibber and minerals (Reed, 2002; Nile & Park, 2014 Liu et al., 2015; Michalska & Lysiak, 2015; Szajdak & Inisheva, 2016). Cranberry juice and fruits are widely reported to demonstrate a number of health advantages including: inhibition of development and progression of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, antimicrobial activities and prevention of urinary tract infections and stomach ulcers, cholesterol reduction and the reduction of biofilm formation (Vattem et al.
, 2005; Chi-Hua Wu et al., 2008; Blumberg et al., 2016; Maki et al., 2016; Das et al.
, 2017). Cranberry and blueberry berries are also valued for their fresh taste as well as their potential for being processed. Today, an increasing demand for healthy ingredients by the food industry and changed consumer consciousness provide great opportunities for further progress of cranberry production