Allusion/Type: Juan Ramon Jimenez/LiteraryQuote: “If they give you ruled paper, write the other way” (Bradbury XI).Explanation: Juan Ramon Jimenez was a Spanish poet who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1956, he lived from 1881 to 1958, and was quite successful in that time. In 1903-1953 a few selections of Juan’s works were published in English, these would be what Ray Bradbury was reading before Fahrenheit 451 was published in 1953 (“Juan Ramón Jiménez”). The lines on the paper in this metaphor reflect to Guy Montag’s world. To write the other way is to go against the mainstream lines and represent an insurrection in the book of seeking knowledge (Shmoop Editorial Team).Allusion/Type: Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels/LiteraryQuote: “It is computed that eleven thousand persons have at several times suffered death rather than submit to break their eggs at the smaller end” (Bradbury 65). “I want you to meet Jonathan Swift, the author of that evil political book, Gulliver’s Travels!” (Bradbury 144). Explanation: Gullivers Travels was written by Jonathan Swift and publish anonymously in the year 1726 (“Gulliver’s Travels). The book was later made into a movie, then the movie was recreating starring Jack Black, the newest movie varies greatly from the original book. These quotes in both books are related to rebellion as in both there is corruption. This quote could be Bradbury linking the corruption and functioning of society in Fahrenheit 451 to Gulliver’s Travels (Vigil and Parapunova). Allusion/Type: Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach/LiteraryQuote: “What’s the title, dear?” “Dover Beach.” His mouth was numb. “Now read in a nice clear voice and go slow.” … “The Sea of Faith Was once, too, at the full, and round earth’s shore Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled. But now I only hear Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar, Retreating, to the breath Of the night-wind, down the vast edges drear And naked shingles of the world.” The chairs creaked under the three women. Montag finished it out: “Ah, love, let us be true To one another! for the world, which seems To lie before us like a land of dreams, So various, so beautiful, so new, Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light, Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain; And we are here as on a darkling plain Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight, Where ignorant armies clash by night” (Bradbury 96-97). Explanation: Dover Beach was written by Matthew Arnold and published by New Poems in 1867. Matthew Arnold lived from 1822- 1888. This was Arnold’s most celebrated piece. The poem explains the drop in religious faith and offers the quality of faithfulness (“Dover Beach”). Allusion/Type: William Blake/Literary Quote: “Burning Bright” (Bradbury 107).Explanation: William Blake was born in 1757 in London and lived till 1827. He was an engraver, artist, poet, and visionary. Both Blake’s life and works were intensely spiritual. He released a poem titled The Tyger in which there was the quote “Tyger burning bright” which got used as the title of part III in Fahrenheit 451 (“William Blake”). Allusion/Type: Hugh Latimer/HistoricalQuote: “‘We shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out,'” said Beatty. Stoneman glaced over at the Captain, as did Montag, startled. Beatty rubbed his chin. “A man named Latimer said that to a man named Nicholas Ridley, as they were being burnt alive at Oxford, for heresy, on October 16, 1555” (Bradbury 37).Explanation: Hugh Latimer was born 1485 in Thurcaston, Leicestershire in England and he died in 1555. Latimer was an English Protestant. His teaching were inspired by his martyrdom. He was arrested and charged with treason, and was burned alongside Nicholas Ridley, but immortalized himself by exhorting this famous quote to Ridley (“Hugh Latimer”). Allusion/Type: Nicholas Ridley/Historical Quote: “‘We shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out,'” said Beatty. Stoneman glaced over at the Captain, as did Montag, startled. Beatty rubbed his chin. “A man named Latimer said that to a man named Nicholas Ridley, as they were being burnt alive at Oxford, for heresy, on October 16, 1555” (Bradbury 37).Explanation: Nicholas Ridley lived from 1500 to 1555. Ridley was a Protestant martyr and one of the best academic minds. He was arrested in July 1553. Then burned at the state alongside Hugh Latimer in October 1555 (“Nicholas Ridley”). Allusion/Type: Benjamin Franklin/Historical Quote: “Established, 1790, to burn English-influenced books in in the Colonies. First Fireman: Benjamin Franklin” (Bradbury 32). Explanation: Benjamin Franklin was born in 1706 in USA, and died in 1790. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, he was an American printer and publisher, author, inventor and scientist, and diplomat. Franklin help drafted the Declaration of Independence and was one of its signers. He is very important to science and remembered for his wisdom and writings (“Benjamin Franklin”). Allusion/Type: Tower of Babel/Biblical/Mythological Quote: “”You know the law,” said Beatty. “Where’s your common sense? None of those books agree with each other. You’ve been locked up here for years with a regular damned Tower of Babel. Snap out of it! The people in those books never lived. Come on now!”” (Bradbury 35). Explanation: The Tower of Babel was built in Babylonia. Its building story in in the book of Genesis of the bible. The story is that God disrupted the building process and the city was never finished. In Babylonian the tower was called Bab-ilu meaning “Gate of God” which translated in Hebrew to Babel (“Tower of Babel”). Allusion/Type: Old and New Testaments/BiblicalQuote: “”In the hall Mildred’s face was suffused with excitement. “Well, the ladies are coming over!” Montag showed her a book. “This is the Old and New Testament, and…” “Don’t start that again”” (Badbury 72). Explanation: The Old and New Testaments make up the bible used as scripture in Christianity. The Jewish bible contains only the Old Testament. The New Testament is smaller and associated with Christianity. The Testaments contain smaller books that go into detail of their time explaining the development of monarchy and offering the stories of the prophets (“Bible”). Allusion/Type: Book of Job/Biblical Quote: “”Here.” Far away across town in the night, the faintest whisper of a turned page. “The Book of Job”” (Bradbury 89). Explanation: The book of Job is a book from the Old Testament. The main theme of the Book is the problem of the eternal unworthy suffering. The central character, or prophet, is Job. Chapters 28 and 32 through 37 are likely to be added on later (“The Book of Job”). Allusion/Type: Book of Ecclesiastes/BiblicalQuote: “Nothing. I thought I had part of the Book of Ecclesiastes and maybe a little of Revelation, but I haven’t even that now.” “The Book of Ecclesiastes would be fine. Where was it?” “Here,” Montag touched his head. “Ah,” Granger smiled and nodded. “What’s wrong? Isn’t that all right?” said Montag. “Better than all right; perfect!” Granger turned to the Reverend. “Do we have a Book of Ecclesiastes?” “One. A man named Harris of Youngstown.” “Montag.” Granger took Montag’s shoulder firmly. “Walk carefully. Guard your health. If anything should happen to Harris, you are the Book of Ecclesiastes. See how important you’ve become in the last minute!” (Bradbury 144). Explanation: A book of the Old Testament. The book has a naturalistic vision on life. It thoroughly recognizes both the human nature and everlasting rule of God over the world. The Book of Ecclesiastes is designed to make people put their trust solely in God (Swindoll). Allusion/Type: Book of Revelation: The Tree of Life/Biblical Quote: “Nothing. I thought I had part of the Book of Ecclesiastes and maybe a little of Revelation, but I haven’t even that now” (Bradbury 144). Explanation: A book in the New Testament and therefore in Christian scripture. The Greek translation for this book means “Uncovering” or “Disclosure.” The book uncovers hidden messages and discloses events for well after it was written. Many of the prophecies the book holds are yet to be fulfilled (Jehovah’s Witnesses). Allusion/Type: Salamanders according to myth/legend/Mythological Quote: “But he knew his mouth had only moved to say hello, and then when she seemed hypnotized by the salamander on his arm and the phoenix-disc on his chest, he spoke again” (Bradbury 4). Explanation: A Salamander is a real creature of the order Caudata and the class Amphibia. Salamanders are different to lizards and they do not have scales or claws. Mythological salamanders appear the same as modern day real salamanders execpt the mythological salamanders have six legs and make their home in fire. The Salamanders have fire-proof skin, like the fireman’s jacket (“Salamander”). Allusion/Type: The legend of the Phoenix/MythologicalQuote: “But he knew his mouth had only moved to say hello, and then when she seemed hypnotized by the salamander on his arm and the phoenix-disc on his chest, he spoke again” (Bradbury 4). Explanation: The Phoenix is of ancient Egyptian and Classical times. The bird is associated with worship of the sun. The Phoenix is said to die and burn in flames then a new phoenix would be born out of the ashes. This repetition was almost like the phoenix was immortal (“Phoenix”). Allusion/Type: Icarus and Daedalus/MythologicalQuote: “Old Montag wanted to fly near the sun and now that he’s burnt his damn wings, he wonders why” (Bradbury 107). Explanation: Icarus was the son of Daedalus, both are mythical. Daedalus was a Greek inventor, architect, and sculptor. The story goes that Daedalus sculpted wings of wax and feathers for himself and Icarus, so they could escape to Sicily. However, Icarus flew too close to the sun and his wings melted and he fell into the sea and drowned, his body later washed up on an Island which was named Icaria (“Daedalus”).