After and reactants were supplied to the cathode and

After the purging process, fuel cell temperature was lowered, and reactants were supplied to the cathode and anode. Now, the cell performance (voltage), temperature of fuel cell and success or failure were evaluated for different chemical parameters such as humidification, stoichiometric ratio, gas purging 3.             The performance of FC was stable at 80, 25, 0, -5 and -10 degree-Celsius. But for -15 degree-Celsius the cell performance was not stable. The cell voltage decreased with increase in current-voltage cycling but after fourth cycle the voltage dropped to zero at a current density equal to 350mA/cm2. The cold start measurement results for -5, -10 and -15 degree-Celsius are given in Table 1 3.

The cell was able to function properly at -5 degree-Celsius when the cell was pre-purged and insulated. Therefore, the removal of initial water content is helping in the performance of cell at sub-zero temperatures. The voltage is initially decreased for first 20 seconds but as the fuel cell temperature increases because of exothermic reaction of hydrogen and oxygen, the performance is recovered 3. The internal ohmic resistance also helps in increasing the temperature. It was also observed that preheating of air favours the operation of cell at sub-zero temperatures.

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            Further, the effect of sub-zero temperatures on fuel cell components was studied. We can see from Fig 1-2 the changes in structure of membrane electrode assembly, gas diffusion layer and membrane after the fuel cell operation at freezing temperature 3. Fig 1-C clearly shows the degradation of MEA after operation at -15 degree-Celsius. The freezing of water has delaminated and caused immense damage to the catalyst layer present in membrane and GDL (Fig 1-C and 1-D). Fig 2-C clearly illustrates the damage done to the gas diffusion layer which is expected because it holds the maximum water during operation.

                                      Like the experiment performed by Qiangu Yan et al. to determine the effect of sub-freezing temperatures on PEM fuel cell performance 3, another experiment was performed by E. Pinton et al.

regarding PEMFC start-up at sub-zero temperatures. They conductedAfter the purging process, fuel cell temperature was lowered, and reactants were supplied to the cathode and anode. Now, the cell performance (voltage), temperature of fuel cell and success or failure were evaluated for different chemical parameters such as humidification, stoichiometric ratio, gas purging 3.            The performance of FC was stable at 80, 25, 0, -5 and -10 degree-Celsius. But for -15 degree-Celsius the cell performance was not stable. The cell voltage decreased with increase in current-voltage cycling but after fourth cycle the voltage dropped to zero at a current density equal to 350mA/cm2. The cold start measurement results for -5, -10 and -15 degree-Celsius are given in Table 1 3.

The cell was able to function properly at -5 degree-Celsius when the cell was pre-purged and insulated. Therefore, the removal of initial water content is helping in the performance of cell at sub-zero temperatures. The voltage is initially decreased for first 20 seconds but as the fuel cell temperature increases because of exothermic reaction of hydrogen and oxygen, the performance is recovered 3. The internal ohmic resistance also helps in increasing the temperature. It was also observed that preheating of air favours the operation of cell at sub-zero temperatures.             Further, the effect of sub-zero temperatures on fuel cell components was studied.

We can see from Fig 1-2 the changes in structure of membrane electrode assembly, gas diffusion layer and membrane after the fuel cell operation at freezing temperature 3. Fig 1-C clearly shows the degradation of MEA after operation at -15 degree-Celsius. The freezing of water has delaminated and caused immense damage to the catalyst layer present in membrane and GDL (Fig 1-C and 1-D). Fig 2-C clearly illustrates the damage done to the gas diffusion layer which is expected because it holds the maximum water during operation.                                       Like the experiment performed by Qiangu Yan et al.

to determine the effect of sub-freezing temperatures on PEM fuel cell performance 3, another experiment was performed by E. Pinton et al. regarding PEMFC start-up at sub-zero temperatures. They conducted