Abstract Human Madewars are the worst way of destruction. Other than wars, disasters makes thedestruction on property and lives. Careful disaster management is important tomitigate that issue is very relevant to Sri Lanka with the recent trend of exponentialrise in Disasters. Here it is conclusive that number of Disaster related studiesrespect to the technological development are carried out in the recent past. Disasteridentification systems and disaster classification systems are also developedby numerous contributors to take the subjective area developed.
Utilization on Disasterethics and response utilization with humanitarian activities is required toaddress the framework development and creating proactive solutions.Theoretical developmentin Evaluating Disaster Management process, which can be generalized to use inany circumstance is a future research requirement for the development of thesubject area. Keywords: Disaster Management; FrameworkDevelopment; Disaster Ethics; Disaster Response; Disaster Technology 1. IntroductionOver theten year period from 2005 to 2014 1.5 billion public have been affected bydisasters in the world, 23 million people have been made homeless, 1.
4 millionhave been injured and over 700,000 people have lost their lives due todisasters. The total economic loss due to disasters in these ten years is $1.3trillion (Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2015).In order to identify the current knowledge and studies carried out aroundEvaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of current disaster management systemas per the availability, literature was divided in to six topics: InformationSystems use to analyze disasters, Disaster occurrence and response, Solutioncreation on disasters, Humanitarian involvement in disaster management, Vulnerabilityto Disasters | Floods in Sri Lankan context and Disaster recovery. Knowledge identifying on creation and continuation of Disaster Management frameworkas well as modifying is where the mainly literature review is focused on. 2.
Literature Review2.1 Information Systems use toanalyze DisastersAccordingto the Mathias Leidig’s and Richard Teeuw’s Research on the nature of freelyavailable geospatial software and information systems in the context ofdisaster management the use of geospatial data is crucial to effective disastermanagement, from preparedness to response and recovery. However, to make efficientuse of available data and information – before, during and after a disaster –reliable software is required. The software applications examined in this paperrange from Geographical Information Systems, to the processing of remotely sensedimages, crowd-source mapping, web applications and content management systems.Trends and challenges are considered, and guidelines are given, to foster andencourage the provision of information by Freeware and Open Source Software.Free geoinformatics can help to optimize the limited financial, technologicaland manpower resources that many organizations face, providing a sustainableinput to analytical activities (Mathias Leidig, 2015). MilanErdelj’s, Michal Krol’s and Enrico Natalizio’s work identifies the role ofWireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in thecontext of natural disaster management. Main applications of systems involvingWSN and UAV are classified according to the disaster management phase, and areview of relevant research activities is provided along with the research anddevelopment challenges that still remain unsolved (Milan Erdelj, 2017).
The main objectives of these works wasto present technical results useful to improve the wellbeing of people, andpush the state of the art one step forward in the definition of a completedisaster management systemAlso whenit comes to Landslides, Vu Van Khoa’s and Shigeru Takayama’s paper describes asystem that uses a wireless sensor network (WSN) to monitor landslide disastersin remote areas. The system consists of 3 subsystems called the Local SensingNode Network System (LSNNS), the Cloud System (CS), and the Host System (HS).To monitor the field status and condition of the nodes remotely, they set up anappropriate management scheme in which the HS collects various data types incategories: node status, node data, LSNNS status, and LSNNS data.
Equivalentlists are available to manage the HS and CS. Each data type contributes to 1 or2 key analyses in determining a temporary situation. Experiments are conductedto investigate some featured data for landslide monitoring application,including node posture, dynamic change of topology, landslide occurrencerecognition, and node location change. Where WSN is a candidate for monitoringnatural disasters, this remote management scheme provides the surveillanceprocess with extra information and helps the operator to comprehend thesituation and maneuver with less effort (Vu Van Khoa, 2018). 2.2 Disaster Occurrence and ResponseDisasters—naturaland human-made—are an important force in shaping Earth’s ecosystem (Lee, 2018). Natural disastersstruck long before modern humans inhabited the planet and will likely continueas long as Earth exists.
The evolution of humans and subsequent developmentnecessary to sustain modern communities has also affected the ecosystem. Thereare multiple phases and goals of disaster response, and these change over time.In each of the phases of disaster response, various questions arise about whatwe should do and why. Disaster ethics attempts to answer questions about whatwe ought to do to prevent and respond to disaster situations. Comprehensivetreatment of disaster ethics is still developing in this young field.
Like anyemerging field, there are numerous important contributors developing approachesfrom their own perspective. A substantial future challenge for the field willbe to bridge the numerous ethics subfields that play a role in doing what isright during a disaster.2.3 Solution creation on DisastersGeneralagreement exists effective disaster management faces constraints related toknowledge sharing and a need for real-time research responses. Extreme caseexamples of disasters especially vulnerable to these challenges are globalpandemics, or disease outbreaks, in which data required for research responseare only available after the start of an outbreak (WilliamCallaghan, 2016). This paper arguesthe developing field of probabilistic innovation (innovation increasingprobability of solving societal problems through radically increasingcoordination of volumes of problem-solving inputs and analysis), and itsmethodologies, such as those drawing from crowdsourced R&D and socialmedia, may offer useful insights into enabling real time research capabilities,with important implications for disaster and crisis management.
Three paradigmsof disaster research are differentiated, as literature is related to theoryoffered by post normal science, Kuhnian ‘normal science’ and Lakatosian’structural science,’ and the goal of achieving real time research problemsolving capacity in disaster crisis situations. Global collaborative innovationplatforms and large-scale investments in emerging crowdsourced R&D andsocial media technologies together with synthesis of appropriate theory maycontribute to improved real time disaster response and resilience acrosscontexts, particularly in instances where data required to manage response isonly available after disasters unfold.2.4 Humanitarian involvement inDisaster ManagementSince the1950s, the number of natural and man-made disasters has increased exponentiallyand the facility location problem has become the preferred approach for dealingwith emergency humanitarian logistical problems. To deal with this challenge,an exact algorithm and a heuristic algorithm have been combined as the mainapproach to solving this problem is proposed by Chawis Boonman, MikiharuArimura and Takumi Asada. Owing to the importance that an exact algorithm holds with regard to enhancingemergency humanitarian logistical facility location problems, their paperconducts a survey on the facility location problems that are related toemergency humanitarian logistics based on both data modeling types and problemtypes and examine the pre- and post-disaster situations with respect tofacility location, such as the location of distribution centers, warehouses,shelters, debris removal sites and medical centers.
The survey examine the fourmain problems: deterministic facility location problems, dynamic facility locationproblems, stochastic facility location problems, and robust facility locationproblems. For each problem, facility location type, data modeling type,disaster type, decisions, objectives, constraints, and solution methods evaluatedand real-world applications and case studies presented (Chawis Boonmee, 2017). FatihCavdur, Merve Kose-Kucuk and Asli Sebatli considered the problem of temporarydisaster response facility allocation for temporary or short-term disasterrelief operations, propose a solution approach and illustrate it with anearthquake case study in Turkey. A two-stage stochastic program is developedfor the solution of the problem to minimize the total distance traveled, theunmet demand and the total number of facilities (considering the potentialdifficulties to access the facilities), where facility allocation and servicedecisions are performed in the first and second stages, respectively (Fatih Cavdur, 2016). An earthquake casestudy developed by the Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency ManagementAuthority (mostly referred as AFAD in Turkey) is used to test their model. Theyused five different scenarios, each representing a different after-disastersituation (i.
e., traffic conditions, time etc.), with its respectiveprobability of occurrence, to model the demand uncertainty for relief supplies.They first solve the deterministic model for each scenario, and then, thecorresponding stochastic program. In addition to the defined objectives of themodel, quality of each solution is analyzed in terms of average walkingdistance, demand satisfaction rate and average facility utilization.As per S.Rajakaruna, Previous researches has shown that Logistic skills are a basicrequirement for employment and career development within the HumanitarianLogistics (HL) field. These skills requirements are changing in variouslogistics functions, groups and cultures.
At the same time increasing globaldisasters are adding to the challenges that are adversely affecting the HLsupply chain. Skills of the logisticians are therefore a necessity toeffectively manage the supply chain in a disaster (S.Rajakaruna, 2017). It is vital toresearch in to the area of HL, considering the recent issues that are beingfaced after every disaster in Sri Lanka. A number of researches have beencarried out in finding skills of the humanitarian logisticians at global level.However, as to date there has been limited discussion on the skills ofhumanitarian logisticians in the Sri Lankan humanitarian field. In his researcha Factor Analysis (FA) was conducted in order to find the skills ofhumanitarian logisticians in Sri Lanka.
Skills which were identified earlier byresearchers were further tested in order to find the applicability in the localHL landscape and identified deferent set of component than in the previousstudies. Results will assist the training and recruiting humanitarianlogisticians. 2.5 Vulnerability to Disasters |Floods in Sri Lankan contextDuring thelast four decades floods have been the main disaster that affected the highestnumber of families in Sri Lanka. At present, flood risk reduction is seriouslytaken into consideration by relevant authorities taking mitigation actions tosave lives and properties.
Literature on gender and disasters shows theimportance of gender in disaster mitigation to bring better results (Kushani De Silva, 2014). Kushani De Silva’s and Ramanie Jayathilaka’s study is an attempt to understandthe importance of gender dimension in a flood disaster risk reduction projectimplemented in Sri Lanka. The study was conducted in two Grama Niladaridivisions Pamunuwila and Galedanda in the Gampaha district where the project”cleaning Natha Ela” was implemented during in to address the issue related tofloods in the area.
The overall objective of the research was to understand,whether gender has been adequately addressed in the project management cycle ofthe flood risk reduction project and its consequences.The study revealed that women were more vulnerable to the flood disastercompared to men, due to differences in employment status, income, genderedsocial roles, social norms and restrictions governing behaviour. Even thoughthe communities experienced a significant reduction of flood damages after theproject implementation, the impact on the community could have been muchgreater if the project had considered the gender aspects related to floods.The study thus reinforces the argument that gender planning is vital for anydevelopment activity. In the case of cleaning the Natha ela project, gender wasneutral from the planning stage to the implementation stage.
The lowrepresentation of the women in the decision making process also contributed tothe lack of gender sensitivity in the project. Thus the study clearly revealedthat although disasters affect both men and women, the impact could bedifferent and therefore mitigation efforts need to addresses such differencesto make both men and women resilient to flood disaster.2.6 Disaster RecoveryPost-disasterrecovery of Micro, Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises (SMEs) remains an issueof interest for policy and practice given the wide scale occurrences of naturaldisasters around the globe and their significant impacts on local economies andSMEs. Asian Tsunami of December 2004 affected many SMEs in southern Sri Lanka (S.W.
S.B.Dasanayaka, 2014). The study of S.W.S.B.
Dasanayaka and Gayan Wedawatta identify the main issuesencountered by the Tsunami affected SMEs in Southern Sri Lanka in the processof their post-tsunami recovery. The study: a) identifies tsunami damage andloss in micro and SMEs in the Galle district; b) ascertains the type ofbenefits received from various parties by the affected micro and SMEs; c)evaluates the problems and difficulties faced by the beneficiary organizationsin the benefit distribution process; and d) recommends strategies and policiesfor the tsunami-affected micro and SMEs for them to become self-sustainingwithin a reasonable time frame. Fifty randomly selected tsunami-affected microand SMEs were surveyed for this study. Interviews were conducted in person withthe business owners in order to identify the damages, recovery, rehabilitation,re-establishment and difficulties faced in the benefit distribution process. The analysis identifies that the benefits were given the wrong priorities andthat they were not sufficient for the recovery process.
In addition, the manygovernance-related problems that arose while distributing benefits arediscussed. Overall, the business recovery rate was approximately 65%, andapproximately 88% of business organizations were sole proprietorships.Therefore, the policies of the tsunami relief agencies should adequatelyaddress the needs of sole proprietorship business requirements. Considerationshould also be given to strengthen the capacity and skills of the entrepreneursby improving operational, technological, management and marketing skills andcapabilities.3. ConclusionThere arestudies carried out to evaluate the disaster impact on economic nature, especiallyin Sri Lankan context Tsunami and economic impacts are comprehensivelyevaluated.
Information systems use to analyze Disasters is an area recentlymany researches are done. Also Disaster ethics and generalizing disaster managementprocess is a recent topic widely discussed. But it is very visible that areaslike laws and regulations of disaster management and landslide disaster managementrelated studies are lacking. Current trends on the Disaster management related technology development cancreate a positive impact on many independent as well as related eventovercoming. Understanding the lacking knowledge gap and developing tools oncurrent topics are the objective values of this Research. References Chawis Boonmee, M. A.
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(2016). Allocation of temporarydisaster response facilities under demand uncertainty: An earthquake casestudy. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 19, 159 – 166.
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