Abstract the preference of the learners. Students use various

Abstract – This study aimedto determine the significant difference between the profile and learning stylesof grade 12 ABM students in Fundamentals of ABM1 in Lyceum of the PhilippinesUniversity – Batangas.

This study employed the descriptive design as a researchmethod. The subjects of this paper involved the whole population of grade 12ABM students who have undergone the Fundamentals of ABM1 during their 11thgrade during A.Y. 2016-2017 in LPU-B.

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The questionnaire has been used as theinstrument to gather relevant data and information which contained the fourlearning styles under the VARK learning model developed by Neil Fleming.Learning styles are namely Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic. INTRODUCTION    Everyonehas a distinctive way of learning varying from the preference of the learners.Students use various learning styles to understand the lessons and perform agood performance towards the subjects. Learning style is the cognitive,effective and psychological behaviours of a person which are primary indicatorsof how the learners see, interact with, and react to the learning environment.The learning style varies from the preference where the students could be ableto comprehend with the subject.

It means by which learners are able to studycomfortably and gain knowledge for an immediate period of time. Learning stylehelps improve the performance of students. Many people and educators tend tobelieve that the learning style is one of the factors in attaining success inhigher education.           Fundamentals of Accountancy,Business and Management 1 covers a discussion of the basic accountingprinciples and guidelines that govern financial reporting 1.

It is one of thespecialized subjects that complete the components of the curriculum in the 11thgrade released by Department of Education (DepEd) specific for Accountancy,Business and Management strand in senior high school nationwide. More so, it isconsidered as one of the difficult subjects which require different learningstyles of students.                  An individual has adistinct way of learning from other learners. For a case, some may prefer toachieve high grades by looking at objects and different representations butothers may not consider this way and prefer to learn through actual engaging ordoing a particular task.

Thestudy of Ozbas 2 presentsthat learning styles help students to do the required learning action in termsof speaking, listening, writing, memorization and others. Many have said that learningapproaches help students to process and interpret information on their own.More so, Buri3 suggests that awareness of learning styles may be useful for both studentsand teachers. Knowing their own learning styles can help students to improvetheir engagement with various teaching and learning activities in thecurriculum, and can promote the individual’s professional life-long learning. Learningstyles as a way of functioning that affect the causes brought by behavior forlearning.

Learning style is both a characteristic which shows how student learnwith preferred way of learning, and as an instructional strategy for teachers.it is also defined as a factor for a good academic performance of a student 4.Manypeople and educators tend to believe that the learning style is one of thefactors in attaining success in higher education.Onetheory on how learning styles vary to an individual is the VARK theory of NeilFleming which serves as the foundation of this research paper. Differentresearches give various definitions to learning approaches.

According to Bonevaand Mihova 5, learningstyle is one’s personal preferred way of taking in lessons and dealing withexperiences and is relevant with processing of information. Students get theirpreferred way of learning based on their past experiences. Similar to that, thestudy of Cherry 6 explainsthat Neil Fleming’s VARKlearning model is one of the mostknown representations in identifying the learning approach of an individual. Fleming7 states in his study the developed VARK learning model that every individualhas his own learning style which makes him understand things and ideas of aparticular subject. VARK provides a helpful way on how the teachers andeducators give the right learning to the learners. The analysis of John et al.

8 with regards to the preferred learning styles coming from the gatheredsample of Business Administration students from various schools in Pakistan isacknowledged as useful because it indicates the effects of the preferredlearning methods to the academic performance of students. In addition to that,there are different studies which provide relevant interpretations to the fourcomponents of the learning model. The four learning approaches have been definedin many studies by different researchers. Studentsuse visual learning style in which they prefer looking at teachers faceintently, at displays, at books, and at other representations. In the work ofBandler & Grinder 9, visual learners often recognize words by sight anduse lights as tools to learn and remember. To support this, another study states that those who tend to think when seeingpictures are the visual learners. When they are reading a text from the book,the students usually picture out in their mind what the text is trying to convey5.

By that, learners are able to understand lessons. Also, they understandthe concepts thoroughly if they look at visual representations like maps,diagrams and pictures. The work of Kouyoumdjian 10indicates that students easily remember and retain information through theutilization of visual indicators. Somelearners, however, prefer the aural learning style.

In addition to that, this styleinvolves the sense of hearing. Individuals who prefer this style show that theyare able to learn more through oral communication such as the discussion insidethe classroom, presentations, and tutorials 7. Auditory learners are those who learn best in the formof hearing information. They may have problems in learning the lessons whenthey read texts or analyze illustrations. But if they listen to something thatrelates to the topic, they will be able to clearly understand it. Researchersexplain that aural learners tend to be very talkative and think aloud 5.Another classification of approach is the read/writelearning style. Read/write style is the information thatis to be read or written.

Since students are exposed to this kind of approach,they are used in making it as their preferred way of learning. Studies haveshown that people under this learning style are fond of using words such ascreating quotes, inspirational thoughts, and the likes 7. In another similarstudy of Bhagat et.

al 11 presents that the read/write learning style ischaracterized as a deep approach learning strategy because it assists studentsto learn within their own learning preferences. This result of this studyshowed that learners under this approach tend to acquire higher academicachievements during assessments.Similarto other styles, kinesthetic learning approach has given definitions andinterpretations in various researches. Kinesthetic is the “perceptualpreference related to the use of experience and practice (simulated or real)”which is mostly referred to as “learning by doing”.

It includes senses such as smell,sight, touch, and taste, to be able to perform a particular thing or task.Performing a role play in the classroom, dancing and actively participating inthe class are examples of engaging in bodily activities. Incorporating severalactivities may help it easier for the students to become focused in lessons 7.The study of Lowe 12 identifies that conducting hands-on exercises is vitalin the academic performance of a learner. This will help students to actuallyknow how the concepts and procedures work in a real life situation. For aninstance, assignments that require the application of a particular topic will contributeto a more focused learning. Kinestheticlearners are students who usually do not like reading and gets bored when theysit or stand by for a long time.

Students involved with this learning style easily remember lessons whenthey personally engaged in the process. Students learn things better throughengaging and involving in various activities that are relevant to the topicbeing discussed by the instructor 5. Likewise, older studentsare more comfortable in learning from videos and presentations visualized bytheir instructors through projectors. On the other hand, younger students tendto prefer interactive class discussions with the lecturer. Although youngerstudents reasoned that listening and watching videos are good, exchanging thoughtsand learnings, however, with the professor is more important 13. An exampleof kinesthetic learning is shown in the study of Amosa et.

al 14 which explainsthat a field trip is an activity that allows students to have a directexperience of a real life setting. It is important for the learning process ofthe students, for it gives the opportunity to personally see, observe andexperience things that are related to a specific subject which are unavailableinside the school premises. One of its advantages is that the students are ableto interact through exchanging ideas, views, and comments with the teacherwhich will give a better understanding of the subject towards creating a productiveway of learning things.Therelatively presented researches about the learning styles of learners have leftroom for further study. Researches showed that learning approaches vary from anindividual preferred way of learning. The study of Ferriman 15 states that learningstyles vary depending on the learners. The research shows that students cancreate multiple combinations of learning style according to the topic and thepreference of students in absorbing lessons. This also includes time whichmeans that learning styles, sometimes, differ as time passes by and as theworld continually evolves.

An example of a studysimilar to this paper examines the relationship between the preferred learningstyles and academic performance of 1472 students in principles of economiccourses. The questionnaire of the research is based on VARK (Visual, Aural,Read-write and Kinesthetic) learning style. Researchers used data that camefrom students surveys based on version 7.1 of the VARK questionnaire developedby Fleming and Mills. The result of the survey shows that students taking thiscourse preferred the kinesthetic learning style. The result proves that it isthe most significant learning style in studying the course and attaining goodgrades (Leung et al.

, 2014). Another relevant study of Vishrutha et. al 16assesses the preferred learning styles of 175 students at Srinivas Institute ofMedical Science using the four different sensory modalities (VARK model). Thestudy reveals that each student has one or more learning approach where 55.45%of the respondents shows to be bimodal, trimodal and quadmodal.

  On the other hand, the remaining 44.55%prefers information to be presented in single method wherein results show 69%of students prefer Aural, 17%, 9% and 5% preferences for Read/Write,Kinaesthetic and Visual methods of learning respectively. This led theresearchers to conclude that multi-modal method is the best system to beutilized in order to learn and remember information better.

OBJECTIVES OFTHE STUDY            Themain objective of the study is to determine the learning styles and itssignificant difference to the profile of the respondents. Specifically, thestudy aimed to determine the profile of the participants to supply the gradesin Fundamentals of ABM1 as the basis of the academic performance; to determinethe learning styles of the respondents; to test if there is a significantdifference between the profile of the respondents and their learning styles inFundamentals of ABM1 and; to suggest activities/programs to improve and developthe academic performance of students in Fundamentals of ABM1 through theirlearning styles.MATERIALS ANDMETHODSResearch Design            Thisstudy employed the descriptive design as a method of research to collect dataneeded for the study. According to Kowalczyk 17, adescriptive research is a study designed to illustrate the participants in aprecise way. To simplify, descriptive research design is all about describingpeople who take part in the study.

Participants            Participantsincluded the total population of 112 grade 12 ABM students who have taken theFundamentals of ABM1 in the 11th grade at LPU-B. Probabilitysampling was applied in choosing the sample size through simple random. It wasused to narrow down the total population of the participants since it is morethan 100. Instrument             The study utilized an adopted questionnaire todetermine the learning styles of students toward Fundamentals of ABM1.

It hasbeen adopted from a similar research paper of Maria  Nancy Quinco-Cadosales 18 entitled”Correlates of First Year Students’ Academic Performance in the College ofBusiness and Economics” in La Salle University. The adopted questionnaire wascomposed of four parts which are the VARK learning styles namely Visual, Aural,Read/Write, and Kinesthetic. Questions are distributed equally to each of thelearning style. The respondents were given direction torate every question in each table from the scale of 1 to 4 (4 being thehighest) that best describes their style of learning. The respondents wereasked to put a check on the box that correspond their best answer. Furthermore,the researchers included relevant demographic profile in the questionnaire tocome up with the needed information in finding the result of the study. Thegrades of the respondents in Fundamentals of ABM1 were asked by the researchersfrom the teacher of the participants of the study in order to get reliable datanecessary to the study.

The first draft received some corrections anddevelopment until the researchers came up with a more concise questionnaire.The instrument was subjected for validity through consulting experts onlearning styles.Procedure            The researchers sent a letter to theteacher of Grade 12 ABM students in Fundamentals of ABM1 requesting for thedata regarding the grades of the participants of the study. At a random time, theresearchers went to the different sections of Grade 12 ABM asking for thepermission to allow them to conduct a survey and to administer the preparedquestionnaire. The distribution of the questionnaire was administered by theresearchers to ensure that the respondents would supply the needed data for thepaper. The researchers prepared several set of questionnaires and presented tothe research adviser to get comments and feedback on how to develop the paper. Afteralmost half of an hour, the researchers retrieved the given questionnaire fromthe respondents.