ABSTRACT the need to produce small lots, causing a

 ABSTRACT               This paper describes the improvement of the setupprocess and hence the time reduction and optimization when applied a lean toolfor manufacturing improvement. The Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is oneimportant lean tool to reduce waste and improve flexibility in manufacturingprocesses allowing lot size reduction and manufacturing flow improvements. Theapplicability of the proposed SMED approach will be tested for bending machinechangeovers in the industry. The implementation will enable reduction in setuptime, through company’s internal resources reorganizations without the need forsignificant investment. The results will be obtained from the work conductedduring a period of five months.Keywords: SMED, Lean tools, setup time reduction.

 IntroductionManufacturing organizations, over the last fewdecades are under continual pressure to increase their productivity to meetcustomer demands, as globalization has created the need to produce small lots,causing a significant increase in the frequency of setups, causing thereduction of time required for production of each lot. For this reason it isimportant that changeovers are quick, so that the flexibility to respond todemand is not affected (Mcintosh et al, 2007). Time spent in the setups isconsidered waste, because they are tasks that do not add value, causingincreases in costs associated with the product and time spent that could beused in activities that add value. The need of shorter setups isn’t new; thetime spent between in the production of the last product of a series andproducing the first product of the new series, has always been considered aswaste or added cost (Goubergen and Landeghem, 2002). One of the ways ofachieving this is to initiate a rapid changeover improvement programme. SMED was first developed byShigeo Shingo, a Japanese industrial engineer.

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SMED introduced by Shingois a theory and set of techniques that make it possible to perform equipmentsetup (changeover) operations in fewer than 10 min. It provides a rapid and efficientway of converting a manufacturing process from running the current product torunning the next product.SMED andHistorical Background            Ohno at Toyotadeveloped SMED in 1950. Ohno’s idea was to develop a system that could exchangedies in a more speedy way. By late 1950’s Ohno was able to reduce the time thatwas required to change dies from a day to few minutes. Shingo 1985 There aretwo types of setups: internal and external.

The basic idea is to make as manyactivities as possible from internal to external. There has been lot of workdone in detail for SMED methodology in various industries such as stampingindustries, moulding industries etc. In the implementation of SMED it isnecessary that the following fundamentals requirements are playing vital rolethey are team work, performance measurement, kaizen and the environment of theproduction line. With the help of SMED we can also conduct relationship betweenthe changeover time and production as the batch size decreases, the cost ofeach part will increases since the changeover time will be of fewer parts.Which leads to high manufacturing cost when there are frequent setups. Shingoalso states that “SMED can be applied in any factory to any machine”. Workregarding the application of design changes according to the process Shingo1985.

The Setup Reduction Methodology-SMEDSMED introduced by Shingo is a theory and set oftechniques that make it possible to perform equipment setup (changeover)operations in fewer than 10 min. SMED improves setup process and provides asetup time reduction up to 90% with moderate investments. Setup operation isthe preparation or post adjustment that is performed once before and once aftereach lot is processed.

Shingo divides the setup operation into two parts:Internal setupThe setup operation that can be done only when the machine is shut down(attaching or removing the dies). External setupThe setup operation that can be done when the machine is still running. Theseoperations can be performed either before or after the machine is shut down;for example, getting the equipment ready for the setup operation can be donebefore the machine is shut down.

The three main steps of a classic changeoveroperation are – Step 1:Separating internal and external setup – At this step an important questionmust be asked for each setup activity. “Do I have to shut the machine down toperform this activity?” The answer helps us in distinguishing between internaland external setup. This step can reduce the setup time by as much as 30% to 50%.The following are the three techniques that SMED uses at this step: checklists,function checks and improved transport of dies and other partsStep 2:Converting internal setup to external setup – In order to achieve the singledigit setup time objective SMED introduces this step. At this step internalsetup activities were converted to external activities. So the total time thatthe machine is kept down will be reduced. Advance preparation of operatingconditions, function standardization and use of intermediary jigs are thetechniques to support the second step.

Step 3:Streamlining all aspects of the setup operation – At this step “specificprinciples” are applied to shorten the setup times. Implementing paralleloperations, using functional clamps, eliminating adjustment and mechanizationtechniques are used to further setup time reduction. All these steps arefigured in Fig below.    Figure: SMED conceptual stages       LiteraturereviewSMED approaches and Methodologies The single minute exchange of dies is one importantlean tool to reduce waste and improve flexibility in manufacturing processesallowing lot size reduction and manufacturing flow improvements. SMED reducesthe non-productive time by streamlining and standardizing the operations forexchange tools, using simple techniques and easy applications-Ana Sofia Alves, Alexandra Tenera(2009). The Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is an extremely flexiblemethod, its original description merely states the guidelines for the study andthere is no indication or suggestion of specific tools to use, neither examplesof possible proposals for improvement. Lean manufacturing systems must have theability to achieve responsive, small batch manufacture so that they can meetrapidly changing market demands, MehmetCakmakci (2009).Short set-up times are a necessity nowadays in alltypes of industries.

There exists a good methodology to reduce these set-uptimes in the existing situations. However, experiences of these processesshould be used in the design phase of such equipments. Previous researchprovided a list of design rules that can be used. This list was merely focusedon technical issues, Dirk Van Goubergena,b,*, Hendrik Van Landeghemb (2002),extended this list substantially with some additional technical rules,established from experiences with actual set-ups in different environments.Besides that, we emphasized the importance of designing a good work method andorganization of a set-up.Improved changeover performance will embody fasterchangeovers and/or better changeovers. Better changeovers arise by attending tothe quality of the changeover, particularly in precision location and theoptimum setting of all adjustments.

The quality of a changeover is likely to impingeon line performance measures such as scrap, efficiency and reliability. Thereis a consensus in manufacturing industry that changeover difficulties should betackled by workplace improvement teams. This approach has merit, but it iswrong to fully dismiss the option of substantive design-based solutions tochangeover problems. Changeover improvement has been found to be difficult tosustain in a number of instances. By using design there is usually opportunityto eliminate some changeover procedures and deskill others, and thereby gainimprovement which is far easier to sustain-Richard McIntosh, Steve Culley,Graham Gest, Tony Mileham and Geraint Owen (1996).Irrespective of the improvement methodology that isemployed, Richard McIntosh, GeraintOwen, Steve Culley, and Tony Mileham (2007), gives two fundamental mechanismsby which better changeovers might be achieved. First, improvement can occur byaltering when tasks are conducted. Better allocation of tasks to the resourcesnecessary to conduct them is sought, where the tasks themselves remainessentially unchanged.

The second mechanism is to seek structural change toexisting tasks, thereby intrinsically enabling them to be completed morequickly.Following table shows the methodologies and time reductionachieved by authors using Single Minute Exchange of Die as a set-up timereduction and improvement tool used in their studies:     Paper Author Methodology Time Reduction Improving SMED in the Automotive Industry: A case study Ana Sofia Alves, Alexandra Tenera (2009)   Lean Manufacturing and classic tools Internal-44% External-30% Improvement- 48% An Industrial application of the SMED Methodology and other lean production tools. Eric Costa, Rui Sousa, Sara Bragança, Anabela Alves1 (2013) Lean tools(5S, Visual Management and Standard Work) 53% to 67% in setup times, 45% to 78% in distances travelled and 50% in terms of WIP Improving setup time in a Press Line – Application of the SMED methodology Andreia Simões. Alexandra Tenera (2010)   Gantt chart 28% overall reduction in time Single minute exchange of die in coil manufacturing unit. Sony priyanka D (2015) SMED and Kaizen 50% overall reduction in time A proposed approach for setup time reduction through integrating conventional SMED method with multiple criteria decision-making techniques Mohammed Ali Almomani, Mohammed Aladeemy, Abdelhakim Abdelhadi, Ahmad Mumani (2013) Conventional SMED 73.

8% overall reduction in time Application of Lean Production Principles and Tools for Quality Improvement of Production Processes in a Carton Company C. Roriza , E. Nunesb , S. Sousab (2017) SMED methodology, the 5S technique and visual management.

  47% overall reduction in time Improvement of changeover times via Taguchi empowered SMED/case study on injection molding production M. Kemal Karasu, Mehmet Cakmakci,  Merve B. Cakiroglu, Elif Ayva, Neslihan Demirel-Ortabas (2014) Taguchi method 30% overall reduction in time Improving changeover time: a tailored SMED approach for welding cells Pablo Guzmán Ferradás, Konstantinos Salonitis (2013)   Tailored SMED 33% reduction in time Reduction of Setup Time by Implementation of SMED Methodology Prof M K Gandhi1 & Aman Kumar Singh2 (2016)   Visual SOP and 5S methodology 20% overall reduction in time Reduction in Setup time on Rubber Moulding Machine using SMED Technique Mr. Sanket P. Gaikwad (2015)   SMED 2hours to 8min/setup reduction   Problem DefinitionSingle Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is thetechnique used for reducing the setup time of the equipment or machine. Themain objective or the main motto of SMED technique is to complete thechangeover within ten minute means within single digit of time.Owing to the severe competition in the market, inorder to increase flexibility of parts being manufactured on the machine,machine needs frequent changeover due to variety of products, but the actualtime required to have changeover on machine is large, which comprised of lotsof human effort, time consumption etc, which affects the productivity ofmachine, which would indirectly increase the cost of the product for whichthere was need to implement SMED technique, this adds to the final time (Ana Sofia Alves, Alexandra Tenera2009), and adds to the final cost of the product. Thus there isa necessity, in a global market, to cope up with the customer needs and demandsthus providing an increased flexibility in products along with short setup timesthus reducing the overall product manufacturing time and cost.

 Figure : Hypothesized limits and costs of changeoverimprovement strategiesTime spent in the setups is considered waste,because they are tasks that do not add value, causing increases in costsassociated with the product and time spent that could be used in activitiesthat add value. The need of shorter setups isn’t new; the time spent between inthe production of the last product of a series and producing the first productof the new series, has always been considered as waste or added cost (Goubergenand Landeghem, 2002). These authors categorize the different reasons for shortsetup times into three main groups: •Flexibility: Because of the large number of existing products and the decreasein quantity, the companies must be able to react quickly to customer needs. Soif you need to produce in small batches, it is essential that these tools makethe exchange as soon as possible. •Bottleneck capacities: especially in these machines, every minute lost iswasted. The tools of trade must be minimized, providing an increase in capacityfor production.

•Cost minimization: the production costs are directly related to the performanceof equipment. ObjectivesThis work describes the use of SMED techniques,an  integrated lean manufacturing tool,for the set-up time reduction and optimization of die changeover time, thusleading to short changeover periods along with cost reduction.ChangeoverThe process of switching from the production of one product or part number toanother in a machine or a series of linked machines by changing parts, dies,molds or fixtures, also called a set-up. Changeover time is measured as thetime elapsed between the last piece in the run just completed until the firstgood piece from the process after the changeover SetupThe process of switching from the production of one product or part number toanother in a machine or a series of linked machines by changing parts, dies,molds or fixtures, also called a set-up. Changeover time is measured as thetime elapsed between the last piece in the run just completed until the firstgood piece from the process after the changeover.  Setup Reduction: The process of reducing theamount of time needed to changeover aØ process fromthe last part for the previous product to the first good part for the nextproduce.Followingsteps will be used in the analysis for optimization of setup reduction time:·        The activities are to be first recordedand analyzed as on a setup process map, this will help observe the internal andexternal activities and thus differentiate between them. A table showingactivities and their corresponding time will provide as the first step.

·        In the next step activities will beseparated as internal or external.·        The internal activities can then beconverted into external and then the time reduction, then obtained will berecorded. This will provide the optimum time required for the setup.·        And finally streamlining all the setupoperations.Figure: Conventional SMED approach framework   Conclusion            Shortsetup times are a necessity nowadays in all types of industries. There exists agood methodology to reduce these setup times in the existing situations. Inthis paper the need for setup time reduction (SMED) along with leanmanufacturing is illustrated from the point of view of relation between boththe setup time reduction (SMED) and product efficiency.The SMED method is mainly used to optimize theprocess of changeovers and for eliminating the negative impacts of frequentproduction programme changes (Filla Jan, 2016).

The potential lies especiallyin integrating SMED methods with the information systems which are widely usedin production companies. In cases in which a company is able accurately todetermine the time required for a particular type of changeover, it should bepossible to modify the sequence of orders in such a way as to meet the deliverytimes and also to reduce the total time required for changeovers.(McIntosh, 2007) it is considered that tasks neednot always be reallocated into external time if useful time reductions are tobe made. Attention is given to factors that can limit task reallocation. In this study as a conclusion, it can be stated that SMED “single-minute exchange ofdie” in other words “Quick Changeover” is still a suitable method not only formanufacturing improvement but also for equipment/die design development.References1  Eric Costa, Rui Sousa, Sara Bragança ,Anabela Alves, An Industrial application of the SMED Methodology and other leanproduction tools, 4 th InternationalConference on Integrity, Reliability and Failure(2013) 2  Ana Sofia Alves, Alexandra Tenera ,Improving SMED in the Automotive Industry: A case study, POMS 20th Annual conference Orlando, Florida U.S.

A – (2009) 3  Richard McIntosh, Steve Culley, GrahamGest, Tony Mileham and Geraint Owen, An assessment of the role of design in theimprovement of changeover performance, InternationalJournal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 16 No. 9, 1996, pp.

5-22.  4  Richard McIntosh, Geraint Owen, SteveCulley, and Tony Mileham,  ChangeoverImprovement: Reinterpreting Shingo’s “SMED” Methodology, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 54, No. 1,February (2007) 5  Andreia Simões.

Alexandra Tenera,Improving setup time in a Press Line – Application of the SMED methodology, 2010 Management and Control of ProductionLogistics University of Coimbra, Portugal (2010)  6  Sony priyanka D, Single minute exchangeof die in coil manufacturing unit, International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR),Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2015 7   MohammedAli Almomani, Mohammed Aladeemy, Abdelhakim Abdelhadi, Ahmad Mumani, A proposedapproach for setup time reduction through integrating conventional SMED methodwith multiple criteria decision-making techniques, Computers & Industrial Engineering 66 (2013) 461–4698  Sri Hartinia, Udisubakti Ciptomulyonob,The relationship between lean and sustainable manufacturing on performance:literature review, Procedia Manufacturing4 ( 2015 ) 38 – 45 9  C. Roriza, E. Nunesb, S. Sousab,Application of Lean Production Principles and Tools for Quality Improvement ofProduction Processes in a Carton Company, 27thInternational Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing,Procedia Manufacturing 11 (2017 ) 1069 – 1076  10          M. Kemal Karasu, Mehmet Cakmakci, MerveB. Cakiroglu, Elif Ayva, Neslihan Demirel-Ortabas, Improvement of changeovertimes via Taguchi empowered SMED/case study on injection molding production , Measurement47 (2014) 741–748 11          Pablo Guzmán Ferradás, KonstantinosSalonitis, Improving changeover time: a tailored SMED approach for weldingcells , Forty Sixth CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems 2013, ProcediaCIRP 7 ( 2013 ) 598 – 603  12          Prof M K Gandhi & Aman Kumar Singh, Reduction of Setup Time byImplementation of SMED Methodology , ImperialJournal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Vol-2, Issue-9, 2016 13          Mr.

Sanket P. Gaikwad, Reduction in Setup time on RubberMoulding Machine using SMED Technique ,International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol.4 Issue 04, April-2015  14          Yash Dave , Single Minute Exchange ofDies: Literature Review, InternationalJournal of Lean Thinking Volume 3, Issue 2 (December 2012) 15          Mehmet Cakmakci , Process improvement:performance analysis of the setup time reduction-SMED in the automobileindustry, International Journal ofAdvanced Manufacturing Technology (2009) 41:168–179  16          Dirk Van Goubergena, Hendrik VanLandeghemb, Rules for integrating fast changeover capabilities into newequipment design, Robotics and ComputerIntegrated Manufacturing 18 (2002) 205–214.

 17          Filla Jan, The Single Minute Exchange ofDie Methodology in a High-Mix Processing Line, Journal of Competitiveness, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 59 – 69, June2016.  18          Pedro Manuel Pinto Mota, Study andImplementation of SMED Methodology and its Impact in a Production Line 19          Dorota Stadnicka, Setup Analysis :Combining SMED with Other Tools, Managementand Production Engineering Review, Volume 6 Number 1 March 2015 pp. 36–50