Abstract This experiment tested the relationships between three totally different gas properties: pressure, temperature, and volume. For every third of the experiment, equipment was assembled to check the desired relationship. It was found by employing a syringe and pressure device that the pressure of a gas can decrease as the total volume increases. With the employment of an ice bath, temperature probe, and pressure device it was discovered that as temperature increases, pressure additionally will increase.
Additionally with the use of an ice bath, pressure device, and temperature probe, along with the addition of a syringe, it was found that as temperature will increase, the volume of air additionally will increase. The hypotheses were supported by the trends within the graphs made of the information, however not by the confidence interval values. The cause of so could be due to experimental error. IntroductionThe four physical characteristics of an ideal gas (pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), and number of moles (n)) are all interdependent.
The relationship of these variables exists in the ideal gas law (PV = nRT). R is known as a proportionality constant and is found by finding the other four values independently and substituting each into the equation. Simple gases replace the ideal gas, which does not actually exist, due to the fact that they only display a noticeable change from ideal behavior in extreme conditions. The ideal gas law leads to hypotheses based on the behavior of gases in changing conditions. The volume of a gas will increase as temperature increases at a constant pressure. In the ideal gas law when solving for temperature, T = PV, and pressure and volume are directly related (Novak, M. et al.).
This will be measured by varying the temperature of an ice bath and determining which volume of gas in a syringe will keep the pressure inside constant. With the increase of temperature pressure will also increase at a constant volume. The equation after solving for pressure in the ideal gas law is P = T/V (Novak, M. et al.). Pressure and temperature are directly related.
To test this hypothesis the pressure inside an Erlenmeyer flask will be measured at varying temperatures of water. At varying volumes but constant temperature, pressure will decrease. Pressure and volume are inversely related as seen when solving for pressure in the ideal gas law and obtaining the equation P = T/V once again (Novak, M. et al.). This hypothesis will be tested by changing the volume of gas in a syringe and measuring the pressure of the air inside.MethodsPart 1, Boyle’s Law To test the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at a constant temperature, an apparatus was assembled with a 60 mL syringe, a pressure sensor, a ring stand, and a clamp.
The volume of air in the syringe was adjusted to 55 mL and the clamp foot was placed so that it rested on the top of the plunger for the syringe. The LabQuest was calibrated. The clamp handle was used to decrease the volume of air in the syringe by approximately 5 mL. The pressure and new volume were recorded. This was repeated until 6 or 7 measurements were obtained. The pressure and volume results were plotted in LoggerPro.Part 2, Gay-Lussac’s Law To determine the relationship between pressure and temperature, a LabQuest device was attached to a pressure sensor and a temperature probe. A 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask was sealed with a rubber stopper.
The pressure sensor was connected to the flask with tubing. An ice bath was created in a 400 mL beaker of approximately 273 Kelvin and the Erlenmeyer flask was placed in the ice bath. Adding hot water varied the temperature of the ice bath. The pressure and temperature were recorded five times with each temperature varying by approximately 10 K. The pressure and volume results were plotted in LoggerPro.Part 3, Charles’ Law The relationship between volume and temperature was tested at a constant pressure by constructing an apparatus that consisted of a cooler with a syringe attached to a utility clamp on a ring stand with the tip of the syringe inserted into a bottle that was sealed with a stopper, a pressure sensor attached to a tube connected to the bottle, and a temperature probe contained. An ice bath was created within the cooler.
The temperature was repeatedly increased by 10 degrees kelvin. At every 10K, the volume in the syringe was adjusted to ensure the pressure was back to the initial value within ±0.001 atm. The total volume of air was calculated and used to construct a relationship