AbstractNatural gas is an odorless, gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons-predominantly made up of methane (CH4) with some mixture of (C2H6). Liquefied Natural Gas known to be an innovative alternative fuel technology. Liquefied Natural gas has proven to be a reliable and efficient energy source that burns much cleaner than other fossil fuels. Hence, demand of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has risen rapidly in recent years for the reasons of energy Security and sustainable development. Although natural gas is a proven, reliable alternative fuel that has long been used to power natural gas vehicles, only about two-tenths of 1% is use for transportation fuel. LNG is very cold, a different type of fuel than oil, adoption in the transport sector requires the set-up of a new infrastructure, and the development of LNG based vehicles. In the EU, mainly the countries of Spain, Britain, Italy and France lead the establishment in the LNG business.
Alternative fuels intend to diminish chronic health problems & environment pollutants generated through emissions. This paper attempts to present a potential solution for clean energy development along with its advantages, disadvantages and technological challenges in the world. I. Introduction Operational Under construction Planned LNG terminals Re-loading 15 2 12 Transshipments 3 2 4 Bunker ship loading 9 7 11 Truck loading 19 8 5 Rail loading 0 0 4 Liquefaction 22 n.
a 2 Bunkering for ships 26 5 22 Bunker ships 5 4 6 Refueling for trucks 70 14 19 Cooling natural gas to about -260°F at normal pressure results in the condensation of the gas into liquid form, known as Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). LNG can be very useful, particularly for the transportation of natural gas, since LNG takes up about one six hundredth the volume of gaseous natural gas. LNG is reasonably costly to produce; advances in technology are reducing the costs associated with the liquification and regasification of LNG. LNG when vaporized to gaseous form, will only burn in concentrations of between 5 and 15 percent mixed with air. Liquification also has the advantage of removing oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur, and water from the natural gas, resulting in LNG that is almost pure methane. Production is transfer by specialized tanker with insulated walls and kept in liquid form by auto refrigeration, a process in which the LNG are kept at its boiling point, so that any heat additions are countered by the energy lost from LNG vapor that is vented out of storage and used to power the vessel. Well (fig1) illustrates the property of LNG and (fig 2) reports the statics data regarding LNG infrastructure in Europe (2015-16). Properties of LNG Methane (%) Boiling Point (oC) Density (Kg/m3) Flammability Limit (%) Calorific Value (MJ/Kg) Auto-Ignition Temperature (oC) Values 87-99 -162 to -165 430 – 470 5 – 15 50.
2-54.6 595-600 Fig. 1 LNG infrastructure in Europe (2015-16) Fig. 2 Current situation of Europe where projects as Connect2LNG is conducted which is three-year project led by Unilever, as part of a consortium of companies and third-party Logistics providers (3PL’s). Together they try to break through the current situation in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) whereby it is the most mature, sustainable and cost-effective alternative fuel compared with diesel yet lacks a pan-European network of fueling stations. Develop business models together with the logistic service providers involved in the pilot deployment for the market uptake of LNG as a fuel for medium to long haul road transport.Execute a study and pilot LNG-fueling network to generate substantiated data needed to reduce the perceived risk of logistic service providers on operability and cost of deployment of LNG powered HGVs for medium and long haul road dispatches are some of the objectives the companies are working on.
Similarly, companies like Gazprom, INPEX, Kit Sault Energy, Next Decad, Petronas, Rosneft, Sempra Energy, Steel head LNG are shaping the future of Europe considering LNG as best alternative fuel source for our future. II. Characteristics /Advantages LNG has a high potential to reduce fuel costs, which are the main cost factor of inland barging (up to more than 50% of the total transport costs). Reduced air emissions, higher efficiency of a modernized fleet and increased competitiveness will be the basis for economic growth and for the creation of jobs in the navigation sector as well as a good alternative for the industry sectors suffering from high logistics costs. The implementation of LNG changes the modal split in favor of inland waterway transport, contributing as well to the modal shift objectives of the European Transport Policy. Safe storage, safe transportation and safe usage are the mandated requirements for any fuel and LNG continues to demonstrate a long record of accomplishment of safety in all these three areas.
In comparison to diesel, typical emissions savings associated with natural gas are:Well-to-Wheel greenhouse gas reduction of between 11% and 20%NOx emissions reduced by 80%Particulate emissions reduced by 75%, which is a great alternative fuel source for the context of environmental benefits. In addition, when used as a vehicle fuel, LNG engines run quieter than diesel engines.Compared to propane, typical emissions savings associated with natural gas like Greenhouse gas emissions reduced by 15%NOx emissions reduced by up to 50%Particulate emissions reduced by up to 10%. Unlike crude oil and crude-derived liquid fuels, LNG spills do not require any remediation of soil, groundwater or surface waters because it evaporates immediately and dissipates quickly into the atmosphere. As energy costs continue to grow, it is more and more necessary to find alternative fuels. Using LNG not only brings many environmental benefits, but also substantial economic savings. The technical innovation in the production of LNG has helped to position LNG as one of the least expensive transportable fuels. III.
Disadvantages LNG’s price is highly dependent on geographic location, purity of feedstock, transportation costs, and quantity of fuel purchased, but LNG’s cost per mile is generally less than or equal to the price of diesel. Engineers and architects are working towards developing systems that would make more room for storing LNG in ship containers in southeast Europe.Another drawback before introduction of LNG is the availability of the fueling stations, as these may have to be set up at major parts or at regular bunkering points, feasibility studies and reports are consider and financial situation could bulk up.IV. APPLICATIONS According to the European Commission, LNG import capacity in the EU stood at a totalOf 197 billion cubic meters per annum (bcm/a) in 2014, although only around a quarter(45 bcm/a) was actually used. The rate of utilization is highest in Italy (35%) and lowestIn the Netherlands (4%). An LNG terminal in Lithuania became operational in 2016 and receivedSeveral LNG shipments from Norway.
A new LNG terminal in Poland has just becomeOperational and could reduce dependence on Russian gas supplies. No EU country atPresent has liquefaction facilities. Industrial and commercial boilers are one of the most common uses for LNG in Australia. The industries include dairy products, manufacturing, food processing and construction products. LNG in power generation, boilers, fluid bed dryers, rotary kilns and furnaces are current achievement break through all over the world.
V. Legislative Challenges As the demand for LNG increases worldwide, players in the LNG market face seemingly conflicting challenges. On one hand, they must expand capacity in different regions, make the business and production as agile and adaptive as possible, and improve operation efficiency. The LNG industry developed slowly during the second half of the last century because most LNG plants are located in remote areas not served by pipelines, and because of the large costs to treat and transport LNG.
Constructing an LNG plant costs at least $1.5 billion per one mmtpa capacity, a receiving terminal costs $1 billion per one bcf/day throughput capacity and LNG vessels cost $200 million–$300 million. France and Spain have four and eight LNG terminals respectively, which are heavilyUnderutilized. In theory, these would help diversify gas supplies throughoutThe EU. However, it is currently impossible for significant volumes of LNG supply to moveEastwards. Existing gas infrastructure are largely designed for east-west gas flows, while there are specific bottlenecks and network constraints between Spain and France, as well as related north-south problems in the French network. VI. Personal Thoughts LNG is currently sourced by the EU mainly from Qatar, Algeria and Nigeria – is already used in the EU energy system, in particular in Spain, Portugal, France and the UK.
However, developments in the EU and elsewhere mean that the EU could widen its range of suppliers to countries such as the US, Canada and Australia. LNG could also help drive down energy prices by boosting competition on EU markets. Levels of gas storage have risen over the last 10 years in the EU, helping to balance the fluctuation in seasonal demand.
Storage has a key role to play in a crisis situation: It can react fast to sudden peaks of demand and supply disruptions since stored gas is often close to demand or can be easily transported via the pipeline system to places where needed but before that some pipelines systems in EU need transformation in order to achieve the development. VII. Conclusion Well from the studies, we can find huge potential of LNG in Europe for the future. Regardless of certain problems in LNG distribution and proper utilization, it can really act as a best possible alternative energy source. Establishing proper supply chain could cost billions of dollar project where more mutual projects will uplift the rapid development rather than individual import practices on LNG.Liquefied Natural Gas in Europehttp://www.europarl.
europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2015/571314/EPRS_BRI(2015)571314_EN.pdf Connect2LNG Projecthttps://connect2lng.
com/ The European gas market and the outlook for LNG demand in Europehttps://oilgas-info.jogmec.go.jp/pdf/7/7956/201705_019a.pdf Some Recent Advances in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Production, Spill, Dispersion, and SafetyWalter Chukwunonso Ikealumba and Hongwei Wu*, Curtin University, Australiahttp://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ef500626u Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Factshttps://energy.
gov/sites/prod/files/2013/04/f0/LNG_primerupd.pdf Facilitating the implementation of LNG as an alternative fuel technology in landlocked Europe: A study from Austria LOGISTIKUM Steyr, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austriahttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210539516000055 LNG as an alternative fuel: the steps towards European implementation L. Simmer, G. Aschauer, O.
Schauer & S. Pfoserhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/301371896_LNG_as_an_alternative_fuel_The_steps_towards_European_implementation Focus on LNGhttp://naturalgas.org/lng/ U. L.
and D. S. John Triandafyllis, “Green fuels – Chapter 4 – The use of the gas fuels LPG, LNG CNG as alternative fuels. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-column-russell-lng/europe-set-to-be-natural-gas-kingmaker-as-lng-booms-russell-idUSKBN19L039 Pipelines and LNG in Europe: Competitors or complementary projects?https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/opinion/pipelines-and-lng-in-europe-competitors-or-complementary-projects/