AbstractA recent report on Fuel cell demand hassuggested that the global fuel cells market’s turnover was over USD 3.6 billionin 2016 and also predicted, with a compound annual growth rate 10.5%, thedemand will reach to USD 6.54 billion by 2022. This high demand needs to be metby utilizing the available resources with the help of highly developed Fuelcell power systems.
However developing these systems requires overcoming ofcertain limitations like difficulty in monitoring, instrumentation & dataacquisition of system parameters as well as improving the reliability anddurability. This review paper strives to analyze various data acquisition systems and suggest improvements that help to curb these limitations.The modern-day Fuel cell system, on one hand, is expected to have highresolution, isolation, and waveform acquisition capabilities while on anotherhand should exhibit traits like prompt fault detection and efficient diagnosis.IntroductionIncrease in global warming has made thepollution norms stricter and has created an urgent need to ponder on efficientuse of non-pollutant energy sources. One of the promising green energy sourcesis the hydrogen energy owing to its free green-house gases produced and highconversion efficiency. BackgroundThe FC system is an electrochemical device,which transcends the chemical energy of the fuel into electrical energy. Thereare several types of FC according to the employed electrolyte type. Whatever may be the type of fuel cell, theirbasic operation is always the same.
For this paper, we will limit ourdiscussion to the widely used Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) due totheir ability to operate at low temperatures, short start-up time and highpower density.Fuel Cell workingA typicalFC configuration consists of Anode, Cathode, and Electrolyte wherein theelectrolyte is packed in between the anode (negative electrode) and cathode(positive electrode). The anode catalyst (mostly platinum powder) oxidizes thehydrogen fuel transforming it into hydrogen ions and electrons. These electronspass through anode to cathode via an external circuit producing electricity.The hydrogen ions produced pass through the electrolyte to the cathode, combinewith oxygen that is reduced at the cathode (Nickel as a catalyst) , thusproducing water. The fuel cells can be connected in series so that the netvoltage of the combination matches to the high amount of desired voltage.
This combinationis called FC stack.Fuel Cell Systems functioningThe FC system consists of four circuits, asdepicted in Fig. 2, namely such as air, hydrogen, humidification and theelectrical circuit. The Hydrogen valve controls gas H2 flow. The air filterremoves solid particles like dust, molds and bacteria while the motorcompressor increases the pressure by reducing air volume.
The humidifierincreases the moisture in the compressed so that the air reaches the cathode atoperating condition. The fluid manifold, consisting of one input and severaloutputs, distributes the gas uniformly to ensure the supply of fuel gas of eachcell of the stack. The cooling unit includes two electric fans.
One of which isplaced beside the compressor and the humidifier for cooling, and the andanother fan makes sure that stack is at low temperatures under normal operatingconditions. The FC system is kept in proper operating mode by deployingfollowing Management systems:- (a) Air Management system (b) Water Management (c)Fuel Management (d) Thermal Management.Data AcquisitionSystemData Acquisition system (DAQs) is apre-processing unit wherein the physical parameters of a system, in the form ofwaveform signals, are acquired, sampled, conditioned according to theconstraints and finally converted to digital signals before feeding it to thesignal processing and control unit.The development of different diagnostic tools for FC systemsbecome a must in order to ensure safety, security, and availability duringfaults. Consequently, these faults should be detected as early as possible.