A explore what ‘teachable’pedagogic resources are available in ?exible,

A further set of questions relate to the possibility of teaching translanguagingin classrooms.

The pedagogical side is underdeveloped in general. While wehave studied the practice of translanguaging in social life – i.e.

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, in urban youthencounters, linguistic landscapes, and the Internet – we haven’t ?gured out howto develop such pro?ciency among students in classrooms. In a recent studyon translanguaging practices in bilingual classrooms, Creese and Blakledge(2010: 113) emphasize “the need for further research to explore what ‘teachable’pedagogic resources are available in ?exible, concurrent approaches to learningand teaching languages bilingually”. In making this call, they echo what otherscholars like Lin and Martin (2005) have also considered important in order tomove multilingual language acquisition forward.The studies we do have on school contexts show translanguaging to be anaturally occurring phenomenon. In a majority of these studies, acts of translanguagingare not elicited by teachers through conscious pedagogical strategies.

They are produced unbidden. In fact, in many of these cases, translanguagingoccurs surreptitiously behind the backs of the teachers in classes which proscribelanguage mixing (see the studies from diverse communities in Lin and Martin2005; Heller and Martin-Jones 2001). In the more proactive situations, teachershave provided safe spaces for students to adopt their multilingual repertoire forlearning purposes, and teachers have themselves collaborated with students inusing the repertoire as a resource, as in the study by Creese and Blackledge.Pedagogical approaches such as the biliteracy workshop (Garcia 2009) and continuaof biliteracy model (Hornberger 2003) theorize how students may shuttlebetween languages and modalities in their learning. However, we still have along way to go in developing teaching strategies out of these broadly conceivedmodels.