ABSTRACTLead acid batteries serve as huge energy reservoir since more than a century in our daily life. Inspite of being randomly optimized its various aspects in the past, till now Lead acid batteryresearchers facing, a great challenge, is the Sulfation at the both positive and negative plates.Besides, positive electrode grid Corrosion, longer curing as well as formation time of the positiveplate and also its low energy density because of high atomic weight of Lead (Pb).

Thus, at present,all the researches about Lead Acid Battery are completely focused onto gain high energy densityat low cost and to reduce sulfation. To suppress sulfation at the negative plate, we propose herecarbon coated tin oxide (C-SnO2) as a negative electrode additive for lead-acid batteries. C- SnO2was synthesized by solid state synthesis from the mixtures of SnO2 and carbon precursor ofPetroleum-pitch. The structural and Physical properties of the materials were analyzed throughPowdered X-Ray Diffraction, Raman and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).Electrochemical aspects are characterized by galvanostatic charge-discharge and impedancespectroscopy. Experimental results indicates that cells addition of 0.

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25 wt % of C-SnO2 into thenegative active material reduces formation cycle from 3 cycle (Conventional cells) to 1 cycle.More than 60 % specific capacity increment in capacity is achieved for the C- SnO2 added electrodeduring the 1st cycle compared to conventional cell.. The cells also have shown good C-ratecapabilities at different rates up to 50 cycles in comparison to conventional cell. C- SnO2 addedcells deliver more than 25% capacity compared to conventional cells.

They have shown very lessohmic, surface, charge transfer resistance compared to conventional cell. Carbon increasesconductivity and SnO2 filled into the pores of the active mass provides electrolyte reservoir. Thus,we can conclude that the additives we have used are very efficient to increase the capacity of thecell in spite of having hard sulfation. Parallel studies shows that this additive also improves thecycle life of the battery under 25 % of depth-of-discharge (DOD) and 50 % of DOD conditionsand high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) conditions.