5.2 should be further investigated in order to actually

5.2       Conclusion and Recommendations

The biochemical characteristics tests
carried out revealed that 16 pathogens of the sampled fish (Clarias gariepinus) showing that the
said fish contained a well load of pathogens which could be as a result of the
handling technique used in practice. 

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The results of phytochemical screening of T. cacao parts especially the leaf and
husk extracts gave a promising potential use of this plant as a source of
antibacterial drug against fish pathogens and this gives the fish farmer an
advantage over costlier synthetic drugs in their aquacultural practices even
though the sensitivities of these microbes to synthetic drugs was higher than
that of the T. cacao part extracts.


The results of the MIC of T. cacao parts extracts against the identified organisms showed
that the husk and the leaf extracts had the most inhibitory effects while the
MBCs performed followed similar trend as the MIC results.


The bacteriostatic and bactericidal
efficacy of the synthetic antibiotics on the 16 bacterial pathogens revealed
the potential efficacies of the synthetic drugs, Gentamycine, Streptomycin,
Ciprofloxacine and Ofloxacine and T.

cacao part extracts, leaf and husk as a remedy for diseases caused by a
host of pathogens identified in this study. The MICs and MBCs of leaf and husk
extracts showed a promising efficacy than some synthetic drugs especially
Penicillin and Cotrimoxazole if well purified.


It is however recommended that
threobromine, which is the major constituent of cocoa (especially the cocoa
beans) should be further investigated in order to actually get the accurate
content and its efficacy in the treatment of some disease of the African
mudcatfish, C. gariepinus and
therefore enhance profit maximization of the aquaculture industry.

it is also recommended that further studies like the in vivo experimentation of this study should be carried out to test
these extracts on the life diseased fish.