4.1 12V DC Motor:4.2.
L298N Motor Driver: The L298 is an incorporated solid circuit in a 15- lead Multiwatt and PowerSO20 bundles. It is a high voltage, high flow double full-connect driver outlined to acknowledge standard TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads, for example, transfers, solenoids, DC and venturing engines. Two empower inputs are given to empower or handicap the gadget freely of the information signals. The producers of the lower transistors of each scaffold are associated together and the comparing outer terminal can be utilized for the association of an outer detecting resistor. An extra supply input is given with the goal that the rationale works at bring down voltage.Fig. Motor Driver L298N4.3.
Arduino UNO:Arduino UNO is a microcontroller with board based on ATmega328P. It has 6 analog I/O pins and 14 digital I/O pins. Out of 14 I/O pins 6 digital I/O pins can be used as PWM. It has 16 MHz quartz crystal.
Its operating voltage is 6V – 20V111114.4. Flame Sensor: An IR flame sensor module includes an IR receiver, capacitor, resistor, variable resistor (potentiometer) and LM393. It is able to trace infrared light which ranges between 700nm – 1000nm. This module converts the infrared light into current changes. And we can change its sensitivity through Potentiometer (Variable resistor).
Its detection angle is 60 degrees. Flame sensor interface with Arduino is quite simple. First connect the Vcc pin of the sensor with Arduino 5V pin.
Second connect the GND pin of sensor with the Arduino GND pin. Now finally connect the D0 pin of sensor with the Arduino digital I/O pin (let it be pin 7) as shown in the fig below.4.5. Smoke Sensor: The voltage that the sensor outputs changes accordingly to the smoke/gas level that exists in the atmosphere. The sensor outputs a voltage that is proportional to the concentration of smoke/gas.In other words, the relationship between voltage and gas concentration is the following:1. The greater the gas concentration, the greater the output voltage2.
The lower the gas concentration, the lower the output voltage The key advantage of smoke detection over thermal detection is that it doesn’t require line-of-sight to the fire. In other words, if a fire is behind a mountain, it can be spotted by the smoke column it will eventually generate. Another advantage of smoke detection is that, in the case of humans in a watch tower, the range of detection can be up to 30km. Neither thermal sensors nor CCTV-based smoke detection can yet achieve this range. There are two significant disadvantages to smoke detection. The first is that in order for a fire to create a detectable smoke column, the fire itself needs to be quite big. Big fires mean big resources are required to fight it, and in many cases, the fire is already out of control before it is detected.
The second significant disadvantage is that smoke can only be detected in particular visibility conditions. Darkness, fog, smoke, rain, and wind all interfere with the ability for a smoke column to form or for it to be identified. These disadvantages apply to all types of smoke detection, whether human or automated.4.6. IR Proximity Sensor: IR means Infrared. In other words, it is a wavelength of light which human eye cannot see but camera can caught it. An IR sensor includes IR LED and Photodiode.
It is basically used for obstacle detection. The IR LED transmits light when an obstacle is present the light reflects after collision and photodiode receives it. Hence Obstacle is detected4.7.
Ultrasonic Sensor: The HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor uses sonar to determine distance to an object like bats or dolphins do. It offers excellent non-contact range detection with high accuracy and stable readings in an easy-to-use package. From 2cm to 400 cm or 1″ to 13 feet. It operation is not affected by sunlight or black material like Sharp rangefinders are (although acoustically soft materials like cloth can be difficult to detect). It comes complete with ultrasonic transmitter and receiver module.
The distance measurement the TRIGGER pin of HC-SR04 must receive a pulse of high (5V) for at least 10us, this will initiate the sensor will transmit out 8 cycle of ultrasonic burst at 40kHz and wait for the reflected ultrasonic burst. When the sensor detected ultrasonic from receiver, it will set the Echo pin to high (5V) and delay for a period (width) which proportion to distance. To obtain the distance, measure the width (Ton) of Echo pin. It is a module that measure the gap between the sensor and the object with the help of sound wave. It measures the gap by sending out a sound wave at a specific frequency and wait until the sound wave bounce back. Now it will record the elapsed time between the generated sound wave and the bounce back of the sound wave.
Then it will calculate the gap between the object and sensor. Equation is given below: 4.8. 12V DC Water Pump: It Operates on DC 12V and 1.1A. Its power is 20 Watt. It has a capacity of throwing 10L/min with a height of 5m (16ft).
It has following features:? High efficiency.? Low Consumption.? Low Noise (< 38dB).? Working life (approx. 40,000 hours).? Stator and circuit board sealed by epoxy resin.
? Permanent magnetic rotor.? Brusless. 4.9. Servo Motor: Tiny and lightweight with high output power. Servo can rotate approximately 180 degrees (90 in each direction), and works just like the standard kinds but smaller.
You can use any servo code, hardware or library to control these servos. Good for beginners who want to make stuff move without building a motor controller with feedback & gear box, especially since it will fit in small places. It comes with a 3 horns (arms) and hardware.The Working mechanism of the Servo Motor can be observed from the fig below: