2.0Literature review Introduction Thefollowing chapter aims to give a background to previous research conductedwithin the area of the research. It begins with the importance of work lifebalance (WLB). This is followed by the definition of WLB. Furthermore, theconcept of WLB followed by the determinants of WLB and the consequences of worklife imbalance. Then literatures of Family to work conflict and work to familyconflict and the role of women in manage these conflicts by the help of WLB,job autonomy role overload and WLB.
Work life support arose in response to thearrival of women into the workforce after World War II.WLBwas previously raised by the working women during the 1960s and 1970s in theUK. In 1990, US recognised the recognition of work-life balance as an essentialhuman resource management issue (Bird 2006). As per some studies, as paralleledto man, women are more likely to face high degree of WLB issues (Benson et al.,2002). Theterm WLB was invented in 1986 in response to the growing concerns byindividuals and organizations alike that work can impose upon the quality offamily life and inversely.
As researchessuggest, there is no exact, monolithic definition of WLB. Generally, theconcept of WLB is premised on the fact that an individual life is obviouslydivided into two distinct areas: work and life.Typically,in the competitive era of today,women have to battle hard to establish their individuality in the society, aswell as in professional life, it can be seen that work-life balance is themajor problem in the life of working women. (Pandey 2016). Manywomen employee have difficulty in maintaining equilibrium between their familylife and work life (Hyman et al.
2004). According to Amstead (2015)Professional women who are mothers face the challenge of meeting the loads ofboth work and home; however, this is not simple to attain as most of the timethey do not have the time to fulfil each role. Women still take care ofdomestic tasks. When they are incompetent to offer their care and time to theirfamily due to work they become upset, unhappy, disturbed and irritated. At timethey even tend to consider work and family as two detached aspects of life andthey do not like these two aspects that is work family to clash (burke 2002). 2.1 Definition of WLB Accordingto Irfan et al., (2015) the theory of WLB has become a foothold in everysector.
This subject has become a topic of discussion amongst professional’sacademics and throughout recent decades. Cutterbacks (2005) simple definitionof WLB as the ability to allocate energy and time among different aspects ofwork and life and having an awareness of this. How, when and where people workthrough a right measure of switch and the family and work needs are satisfied bythe person is another viewpoint of the definition of WLB.
Friends, family,work, self and health are 5 factors which Byrne (2005) are related to WLB andaspects an individual will have to juggle at any point throughout their life. Greenhauset al. (2003) defined work-life balance as the ‘extent to which an individualis correspondingly engaged in and equally satisfied with their work role andfamily role’. WLB consists of three components: (1) time balance, (2)psychological involvement balance and (3) satisfaction balance. Firstly, Timebalance refers to equivalent time being given to both work and family roles;involvement balance refers to equal levels of psychological involvement in bothwork and family roles; and lastly, satisfaction balance states to equal levelsof fulfilment in both work and family parts. All these components should bemeasured when studying work-life balance.Accordingto Greenhaus et al.
, (2010), Work-lifebalance defines an individual’s assessment of their satisfaction with theirwork and life roles assumed their priorities at one point in time.However, there are two vitalassumptions that are relevant for how individuals define and evaluate WLB. First, implied in the idea of “balance” is the acceptance thatindividuals should try to accomplish the two spheres equally (botero, 2012).
Whereas Bielby et al. (1989) argues that, this assumption isinappropriate because individuals differ in the extent to which they prioritizework and family roles, according to, Helmle, (2010) the second assumption isthe belief that work and family lives are and should be detached andindependent of one another.Maclnnes et al.
( 2006) statesthat WLB is generally related to working time, flexibility,employment, well-being, social security, family, demographic changes,consumption, leisure time and so on. Correspondingly, Byrne (2005) describes WLB in such a broad senseas ‘juggling five aspects of our lives at any one point in time: work, family,friends, health and self’. On thecontrary, Guest (2002), argues that in thecontext of work and life, balance does not refer to an equivalent weighting ofthe two, but rather an acceptable, stable relationship.2.2 The Concept of WLB Theconcept ‘work-life balance’ allows for a broader understanding of ‘non-work’parts of life, joining workers with various family conditions, giving increasedscope to include men, and allowing for spill over and flexibility between workand other parts of life (Gregory 2009).Theconcept of WLB is significant since it supports organisations to cater foremployees working lives and family lives in such a way that role conflict,family stress, job anxiety and job dissatisfaction do not crop up. (De bruin,2002).Furthermore,it has also been argued that WLB depend on a ‘clock-time’ worldview, wherebywork and life are measurable through the acceptance of time as “a measurableand value-able unit” (Roberts, 2008).
However, this time-based method fails toaccount for the quality as well as the quantity of time allocated to differentactivities (Hyman, 2001). Moreover, WLB is generally expected to be a ‘choice’which persons are able to make. (Lewis et al., 2007). 2.3 Determinant of WLB Woodland et al. (2003) argues that WLB is also beneficial for both theemployees and organisations as it reduces absenteeism and enhance customerservices and this happen because employees are motivated to work.
Moreover, Benefits for employees comprise improved flexibility overwork?time, allowing it to be prepared around household and caringresponsibilities (Musson, 2005). Thompsonet al., (2009) stated that Child care and elder care enhance recruitmentefforts in a competitive marketplace. WLB propose a selection of determinants:values, personality traits, work-related aspects (occupations, hours, workingconditions), household-related aspects (young children, care, and householdtasks, cleaning), leisure time (activities) and others (Crooker et al.
2003). Inaddition, Personal enhancers ofWLB, such as regular exercises and fitness agenda, yoga and meditation,balanced diet as well as good sleep, loaded the heaviest as the most impactingfactors; working from home heavily impacts as a professional enhancer in theWLB of women. A study in 2009 established that accessibility of childcare welfares such as ’emergency backup child service (center-based and in homecare)’ influenced the job choices of 58% of participants and elder carebenefits (long term care insurance and emergency elder care service) influencedthe choices of 33%.
Secondly,the reduction of moral difficult stressors in the workplace is the vitalevidence of the effectiveness of work life balance. Negative influence ofstress related illness has shown to conceal the combined annual profitsconcentrating on the types of work life support hold the most promise ofcontribution to reduce health costs. Such examples are: fitness centeraffiliations and on site work life seminars such as stress reduction, parentingand many more..
. Furthermore,employee with high levels flexibility are more likely to be involved in theirjobs, foremost to high job satisfaction. Examples of flexibility of work placeare: firstly, full time (telecommuting and compressed workweek) and secondly,part time options (job sharing and part time schedules). Thereare many benefits of a good WLB such as Reductions are also possible in stress commonly associated with managing work andhome.
(McDowell et al., 2005). Furthermore, the high levels of satisfaction with work, indicative ofobserved development, have been reported among those using flexible workingarrangements (Kelliher, 2008) and women working part?time (Connolly, 2008).
The term “work-life” refers to theconnection of self, career family and community.Source:WorldatWork andAlliance for Work-Life Progress Global Headquarters 2.4 Consequences of work-life imbalance Themost common fears of work life imbalance is depression, causing a reduced inefficiency, higher absenteeism, leads to decrease in employees morale, higherstaff turnover and poorer work qualityof employees.(Seligman, 2011). Moreover, unbalanced work family life are causedby increased work demands which leads to higher levels of stress, fatigue, andpoor time management. Additionally, Rendon, (2016) states that working mothersadvanced that in their determination to balance work and family roles, physicalstress arises.
In Rendon’s study (2016), findings revealed that working motherswere often tired and had little or no times for themselves if they are able tocomplete all their responsibilities. It is coined that work stress caninterfere with home life. Additionally, this has a harmful impact not only onthe employees but also on their families. (Hochschid 1997).As it rises anxietyof individuals at work and at home (Doby 1995), foremost to lower qualityrelationship with spouse and children (Greenhaus 2002). Increased work demandssuch as overtime and shift works may lead to work family conflicts. (Johnson2003). Thus, work related stress has a negative impact on employee theorganisation families and society.
(Greenhaus et al., 2002). However, Grady etal., (2008) highlight the importance for organisation to implement WLBinitiatives such as flexible working hours, childcare facilities and supportsuch as counselling.
Providing suchassistances to employees helps in retaining capable persons and thisautomatically leads to profitability and organisation commitment. (Ryan et al.,2005). In contrast, when WLB priorities differ between employers andemployees, then work family conflict occurs.
This leads to dissatisfiedemployees leaving the organisation to look for work in other organisation whereWLB cultures are high. (Kristofer, 1996). Moreover, Clark, (2000) believes thatindividuals with flexible work agendas achieve better WLB, which leads tosatisfaction both in the work and family. 2.5 Work family Conflictand WLB The phrase ‘work-family conflict’emerged in the 1980s (Barnett et al., 2006), having its origins in the study ofnumerous roles (Brinley, 2005).
As with role pressure, work-family conflictemphases on tensions rising from women merging reproductive and productiveroles (Thompson, 2003). McElwain (2005), stated that, some studies have found’women experience greater levels of work-to-family conflict than men, but thereis no gender difference in family-to work conflict’. Accordingto Hamilton et al, (2006), “work-life” and “work-family” are usedinterchangeably to characterise a persons’ professional and private lives. Tothet al., (2005) state that, the work-family conflict arises when womenexperience the stress of the two roles. Families are culturalSystemswhich try to sustain a sense of continuity balance and hence each familymember’s growth. One of the most vital of these predictors is likely to be theconflict arising out of the professional having to juggle several roles.
Accordingto, Anderson (2002) work family conflict can encourage employees to considerleaving their organizations this have been extensively studied and proven.These conflict would have a significant bearing on the Work- Life Balance of aprofessional. The resulting emotions and stress would lead the individuals tofeel exhausted because of their familial pressures and inability to fulfiltheir work related roles.
Jarrod(2004) discovered work family and family work conflict as a predictor ofturnover intention, and tested the moderating effects of perceived work familysupport from employers on these relationships. Furthermore, Greenhaus et al.(1994) suggested two forms of work-family conflict, ‘time- and strain-basedconflict’. The former takes place when the time dedicated for one role makes ithard to fulfil the requests of the other one. Whereas strain-based conflict isexperienced when the strain created in the work role interrupts into the otherrole causing exhaustion, depression and nervousness.Asa result, the concerns of the enduring work-family conflict are numerous kindsof disappointment for example, ‘job dissatisfaction, family dissatisfaction,life dissatisfaction, depression, and somatic symptoms ‘. Diseases of strainarise as employed mothers usually face the difficulties of how to organise andcontinue good child care.
In the same way, Miller (2005) suggested that, evenif women always try to strike a balance in their routine, they have to switchcertain issues that are liable to jeopardize this balance. Given the above, Demerouti et al., (2004) in the same way indicated thatthere is a mutual relations between work-family conflicts and emotionalexhaustion, such that conflicts lead to exhaustion, which leads to moreconflicts and more exhaustion.
Baldiga (2005) one point of view arguesthat, when women are challenged with such a conflict, they have no reluctancein placing their families first. In thesame line, Sullivan et al., (2001) in a series ofinterviews found that, Women quoted managing their domestic tasks and childcaresituations as primary benefits, whilst males quoted having quality time to bewith the family. In addition, the authors indicated that females associate the home with paid work, whilst malesconsidered working from home as “being able to help out”. Nevertheless, we can explore how work lifeconflict (WLC) which is the conflicting demands between the work and familyroles of the women, which make their participation more difficult and thusaffect perceptions of WLB in married. As stated by Hamilton et al, (2006),married female workers experience WLC between their roles as worker and spouseor mother, while childless single female workers may experience WLC betweentheir worker role and volunteer role in their personal life domain.
Although,women have achieved great victory in their careers, but still theirresponsibility towards their family has not been reduced. They have to dealwith their family responsibilities along with their official work. According toKim et al.,(2014), the major reasons married women gave up exiting their jobwere childrearing (46.7%), difficulty with balancing work and family affairs(19.6%), and co-workers’ perception that female workers who have a child willquit from their job (12.1%). Laxshmi(2013) studied the consequence of WLB on performance of women employees.
Theyidentified the variables that affect WLB. It was found that women who had lowwork and family-related issues were highly able to achieve WLB than those whohad high rate of these issues. Steenbergen V. et al., (2007) suggested thatevery person’s time and dynamism are limited.Withthe rise in work family conflict, the balance of attaining better WLBdecreased.
Therefore this led to formulate the following hypothesis: H0 -Work family conflict will adversely affect WLB among the working women.H1-Work family conflict will not adversely affect WLB among the working women. 2.6 Role of women and WLB Womenare frequently into full time job and are working 8 hours per day and 5 days ina week least and are challenged by increasing workload every day.
Women have tocarry responsibilities and work to home by balancing amongst these twointricate situations. They have to manage with office pledges and the dutiesand responsibilities of life and home. (Ghosh 2010).
According to Greenhaus etal., (2006) women have problems in managing their WLB, particularly if they donot have support of their employer. Women must have a desire to take control oftheir own WLB and take initiatives aimed at acquiring their WLB by themselves. Awoman may be able to control the timing of her working day by managing when herwork actually begins, for example: some individual may be able to select theirwork projects based on the hours they think they will have to work or even bymoving nearer to the workplace in order to decrease the amount of time theindividual spend travelling to and from work every day. In additions, they mayalso develop positive dialogue with the management. Dutton (2010). Accordingto Smith et al.
(2011), the support from employers toward working women differson boss by boss basis. Female bosses with families and children tend to be morefamiliar with having to juggle many different roles and are generally more flexible.Male bosses, however, without children tend to be less forgiving and harder oftime outside of work. ‘This lack of understanding and ‘business firstmentality’ of jobs has caused many women to end up quitting from their jobsbecause it does not provide the support they needed. Furthermore,for organisations to retain talented women, there must be the establishment ofa family friendly human resource practice such as flexibility, telecommuting,providing onsite day care. They can also create programs in dealing with stressto promote a WLB for employees along with their families. (Powell 2010). Verlander(2004) stated that because women are still responsible for domestic works andchildcare, it is hard for them to dedicate considerable time at work forpromotions and being over pressured in a masculinist environment, they have toundertake a heavy workload with their family responsibilities, and they areoften considered as uncaring about their work environment issues.
Similarly,Shiva (2013) enlightened that working women having small children are forced toleave their children in day care. This create more pressure for them and lessfocus on their work. Furthermore, Lan (2006), stated in this study that thepolicies centred of extending parental leave and child care facility helps agreater flexibility in employment. 2.7 Job Autonomy &Role overload and WLB Evenif there are a figure of job related variables that can influence a person’ssense of comfort, it was felt that the more a person is in control and has thefreedom to perform the work assignment at their own pace and technique thebetter will be the WLB. Baileyn (1993).
Thefreedom to choose on the programme and technique of doing work has beendistinct as job autonomy. Infact Parasuraman et al., (1984) state that people who have better control overtheir work environment are less stressed and identify their family life as morepositive and happy as compared to those who do not. Similarly, Ahuja et al.,(2005) found that IT based jobs allowable more elasticity amongst theprofessionals and therefore the workforces could better balance the opposing demandsof work and personal lives. However, Batt (2003) initiate no connection betweenautonomy and work family conflict.Withthe rise in autonomy at the work place, the balances of attaining better WLBincrease. Therefore we propose the following hypothesis: H0:Job autonomy will improve Work-Life Balance among the working women.
H2: Jobautonomy will not improve Work-Life Balance among the working women. Onthe other hand, Bacharach et al., (1991) state that ‘role overload is theoutcome of having too many things to do at one time. ‘Furthermore, Carlson etal., (2000) found ‘evidence of role conflict and role overload as predictors ofwork and personal lives conflict.
‘In addition, Rajadhakshya (2000), take thegender based socialisation procedure to clarify how societal structure impactmen into taking work roles and women to recognise and take on the caring familyrole. Equally,Aryee (2005) also found this to be factual and female professionals practised ahigher level of parental over load than men., Verlander, (2004) states, anotherissue faced by mothers is whether, and how to continue breastfeeding when theyreturn to work and unexpected sickness of children is a disaster that can be challengingto handle and this often involves using unpaid leave and unexpected absencesfrom work. (Poduval at al., 2009).
H0:Perceived role overload will harm WLB among the working women.H3: Perceivedrole overload will not harm WLB among the working women. Itis argued that the socialisation of women as a mother and housewife is defineas the type of work they do within the realm of the home.However in moderntimes more women’s into the workforce has come about due to the rise in singleparents, progression of women in education, professions and the requirement ofhaving two incomes to sustain a desired lifestyle. As a result, womenexperience numerous role struggles in trying to meet their personal and workdemands.
However,there are resources that have been established to decrease the work-lifeconflict for women resources such as organisational, spousal support, familysupport, care networks, family friendly policies and flexible work preparationsare measured to be valuable resources to employees in enabling WLB (Easton etal., 2007). Theseliterature results are significant for this study as they give insight into theseveral challenges and demands that women have to deal with within their workand personal lives, the effects that these challenges have on women at work inthese domains, the means that women and organisations employ to deal with thework and home interface as well as the desired work environment, work practicesand policies that women believe would upgrade them in handling their work andfamily roles better. The next chapter is the research methodology.