Oxidative stress leadsto the development of diabetes mellitus, an epidemic underway with increasingincidence in dogs and cats. It causes ?-cell destruction by apoptosis. Henceexploring agents modulating oxidative stress is an effective strategy in thetreatment of both Type I and Type II diabetes. Pharmacological agents currently used for diabetestreatment have adverse effects, necessitating the quest for safe and efficientcompounds. Ethno-medicinal surveywas conducted on the plants used for the management of diabetes mellitus inIbadan, Southwest Nigeria. Momordica charantia was repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as aplant that produces immediate effect in the management of diabetes mellitus.This study was then designed to investigate the ameliorative effects ondiabetic complications of the methanol leaf extract of Momordica charantia (MEMC) in rats.
Safe doses of theextract were assessed in mice at graded doses (200 – 3,200 mg/kg) usingdistilled water as control. This gave an indication of non-toxic nature of the extract.Ameliorative effects ofthe extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg following alloxan-induced toxicities in malewistar rats (n=50, 100-150 g) grouped as control, alloxan-induced, extracttreated 200 and 400 mg/kg, glibenclamide-treated (4 mg/kg) were studied usingvarious biochemical parameters in the experiment which lasted for 28 days.
Theextract and glibenclamide were administered orally. The effects of theextract on serum glucose level, haematology, lipids profile and body weight ofthe diabetic rats, integrity of damaged pancreatic tissue, kidney, liver andheart were studied. The serum, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues were assayedfor markers of oxidative stress (NO, H2O2, MDA),antioxidant enzymes activities (GPx, GST, GSH, SOD), inflammation, hepatic,renal and cardiac damage. Expression of antibodies was done usingimmunohistochemistry; blood pressure parameters and electrocardiogram of theanimals were evaluated.
Data were analysed using graph pad prism 5 at ?0.05.