(1) Bound and freeA relative clause as a modifier to noun or pronoun with the use of wh- words. A relative clause also contains relativized element ( R element) which is related to the antecedent. Antecedent is the expression in the main clause which is modified by the relative clause. The relation between the relativized element and the antecedent is called anaphora. With the presence of relative pronoun, the relativized element will correspond to the relative pronoun. Therefore, the relativized element is usually characterized by its function in the relative clause.
Let’s look at the example sentence in more detail.A woman who I know got hit by a bus. -In analysing this example, the noun woman is the antecedent and the relativized element is the direct object of the verb ‘know’.
In addition to relative pronoun, there is Zero relative which is an exclusive relative clause in English. English has a zero relative pronoun (denoted below as Ø)—that is, the relative pronoun is implied and not explicitly written or spoken.John built the house that I lived in.John built the house Ø I lived in.The zero relative pronouns cannot be the subject of the verb in the relative clause.Thus one may say:The girl that you saw yesterday.*The girl Ø you saw yesterday.
The relativized elements have different functions, like: subject, object, prepositional complement, and adverbial.-Subject:The phone belongs to me. The phone is on the desk.The relative pronoun that replaces the subject the phone to form a new subordinate clause that is on the desk belongs to me and joins the two sentences together ‘The phone that is on the desk belongs to me’.
– Object: The pie was poisoned. The man ate the pie.The relative pronoun that replaces the object the pie in the second sentence to form the sentence: The pie that the man ate was poisoned.-Prepositional complement:The orphanage desperately needs new stationaries. My mother donated some money to the orphanage.The relative pronoun which replaces the prepositional complement the orphanage in the second sentence and a new sentence is formed The orphanage to which my grandmother donated some money desperately needs new stationaries.-Adverbial: E.g.
The snacks are at the store. The store also sells toys.The relative pronoun where replaces the adverbial at the store. A new sentence formed: The store where the snacks are also sells toys.