1. violations. This Act brought about the need for

1.  Understand why
debates regarding the meaning of justice are relevant to students of the


      These debates are
relevant to students of the police because it will affect how the police treat
citizens fairly and equally and in turn how the citizens respect the
police.  Justice is needed to keep “law
and order” in a society but that cannot be achieved if government and/or
citizens have very different views of what they believe is just. 

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2.  Why should the
police be concerned about protecting the civil rights of American citizens?


      A police officer
should both maintain law and order but also protect a citizen’s civil
rights.  The police should carry the
knowledge that protecting the civil rights of American citizens will help keep
our country from being taken over by an overbearing government. 



3.  Explain the impact
of the Civil Rights Act of 1871 on actions of police in America.


      The Civil Rights
Act of 1871 allowed individuals to sue the stat in federal courts for civil
rights violations.  This Act brought
about the need for police officers in America to be sure that all citizens,
regardless of color, not be deprived of their constitutional rights.  With this act, the officers needed to be
concerned about be liable to the party deprived of their rights. 


4.  Describe the
functions of a justice system in addition to providing “law and order”.


      The justice
system provides other functions than just providing “law and order”.  Other functions of the justice system include
lawmaking, prosecutingIt is their responsibility maintain social control,
rehabilitate convicts and give improve the life of victims



5.  Describe how the
common law system of justice differs from other justice systems.


            The common law system of justice differs
from other justice systems because it derived from decisions made in the
judicial court system.  These court
decisions are known as judicial precedent. 
As other justice systems rely on written laws, common law systems rely
on precedent.




6.  Provide an
overview of how America’s police system is structured.


      The police system
of America consist of national, state and local level agencies.  National level police agencies include such
agencies as the.  The state level includes
agencies the “State Police” and each counties “Sherriff’s Departments”.  The local level agencies make up
approximately 73% of the total police agencies. Within the local level agencies
there are different types of agencies, such as, town, city, villages, housing
district and transit authority police.



7.  Identify the more
important federal police agencies and describe their responsibilities. 


      Federal police
agencies consist of approximately 100 different agencies.  The largest agencies include the Justice, Treasury
and Homeland Security Departments.  The
Department of Justice holds the following departments:  Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and
Explosives; the U.S. Marshals Service and the FBI. The Department of Treasury consists
of the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) which creates and distributes money and
collects federal taxes.  The Department
of Homeland Security was created to protect the United States from terrorism
and has now become the largest of all federal agencies.  Some of their duties include:  Customs and Borders Protections; Immigration and
Customs Enforcement; Transportation Security, U.S. Secret Service and the
Secret Service.


8.  Describe how the
police “fit” within the U.S. justice system.


      The police
agencies, in our U.S. Justice system, are needed to enforce the laws in our
society.  These officers are expected to
have high moral standards and their actions are watched closely.  They have initial responsibility to decide whether
a crime has been committed and if an individual should be charged.  This is an important and potentially
dangerous situation that is affected by many challenges.



9.  Explain why the
“Four C’s” are relevant to police-community relations.


      The “Four C’s”
related to police community relations are known as:  Communication, Cooperation, Competition and Complacency.   These “C’s”
should be followed to have a successful criminal justice system.  Communication must exist between our communities
and police agencies so both understand what is needed for a safe society.  Cooperation with the police helps encourage
faith and trust that our justice system can work if followed.  Competition between police officers and
elected officials will only create the same competition with citizens.  Complacency of a police officer is the same
as anyone creating a crime and it should not be accepted.  Officers should lead by example.