1. Introductionto Motivational Theories1.1 Concept of Motivation Motivation can be classed as amanagement procedure which helps encourages people to work effectively for theall-inclusive benefit of an organisation, by giving them reason, which arebased on their unfulfilled needs. Althoughcapital, human resources and environment all play a role in how an organisationperforms, human resources can be seen as the biggest factor influencing theperformance of an organisation, it is therefore fundamental that organisationsneed to motivate its employees to achieve objectives and goals set.
Motivationhas been recognised in different ways according to (Business Dictionary 2017:online) motivation refers to “Internaland external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to becontinually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make aneffort to attain a goal.”Extensiveresearch has been conducted regarding this subject and many theories have beendesigned which impact organisational behaviour.1.
2 Outline of Motivational TheoriesThisessay will discuss a wide range of motivational theories and their applicationsto organisations which choose implement them, theories include: SatisfactionTheories which suggest an employee who is satisfied is more productive at work,Incentive Theories propose, employees which are given a specified reward, will work harder to achieve goals and IntrinsicTheories state employees work best if they are set a valuable job and allowedto get on with it, reward is from the satisfaction of work itself. 2. SatisfactionTheory of Motivation2.1 Concept of Job SatisfactionAs stated by (Price, 2001) job satisfaction is the affective feeling a personhas regarding their job, this may be particular aspects of their job i.e.working conditions, pay or their work colleagues. The extents to which theoutcome of a job an employee performs, meets or exceeds forecast, may decidethe level of job satisfaction. “Jobsatisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspectsof their jobs.
It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike(dissatisfaction) their jobs.” (Spector, 1997, p. 2)2.
2 Two Factor Theory (FrederickHerzberg – 1959)FredrickIrving Hertzberg, a well renowned American psychologist, remains to be one ofthe most influential and well-known theorists of motivation, his mostrecognised work is the two-factor theory, Hertzberg suggests there are two mainaspects which play a part in motivating employees. Hygienefactors, these refer to extrinsic factors (i.e. safety, pay, working conditionsand benefits). If not present, this could lead to dissatisfaction anddemotivated employees, however these factors do not contribute to jobsatisfaction as they are expected of the employer by staff. Hertzberg chose theword “hygiene” due to its medical association, as hygiene helps to preventillness but does not improve health. Further into his research Hertzberg foundfive important factors which lead to employee dissatisfaction administration,supervision, salary, working conditions and interpersonal relationships.
Hestated hygiene factors must be completed before motivating factors can affectproductivity and efficiency. Motivatorsare intrinsic factors (i.e. feeling proud of work, sense of accomplishment,increased responsibility and recognition by managers). Hertzberg outlined thebiggest factor for job satisfaction is achieving within the work place as staffmotivation is the result of achieving success through enjoyable and challengingwork, therefore according to Hertzberg the five main determinants of workplacesatisfaction are: work should be meaningful and challenging, a sense ofachievement, recognition for achievements, increasing responsibility and opportunityfor growth and advancement. Implementing hygiene factors and motivators aresaid to substantially increase motivation levels and job satisfaction. Thisinfluential theory has therefore been adopted by business management and humanresources for over 50 years.
(Longe, 2016)2.3 Two Factor Theory Application andAnalysisHerzberg’stwo factor theory of motivation can be applied by managers to the modern daymulticultural workplace, by implementing hygiene factors and motivators, theworkforce will become the most productive and happiest. Implementing thistheory will ensure employees feel supported and appreciated as well as preventjob dissatisfaction. This can be seen by (Lundberget al, 2009) who found validity within the theory, as outlined in this study,motivation at work comes down to satisfaction needs.
As expected employeemotivation levels increased and hygiene factors had weak and insignificantimpact on motivation.In contrast, there are flaws within this theory as (Alliger andTaber, 1995) found there are wider aspects which affect motivation and jobsatisfaction. Further outlined factors such as the level of concentrationrequired for the job, task importance and level of supervision had no impact onjob satisfaction. Although ths study found enjoyment towards a task lead tooverall job satisfaction, there was a low relationship found, which suggestfactors other than enjoyment do indeed contribute to how satisfied employeesfeel at work. 3. IncentiveTheory of Motivation3.1 Concept of Incentive MotivationAn incentive can be explained as a factor which motivates anindividual to carry out a task as there is a reward to do so. Vast amounts ofpsychological resarch has outlined that a person will be more inclined to do atask which is positivley received and more likely to avoid tasks which arenegitavely received.
In a business sense an incentive may be a benefit such asjob promotion given to an employee to recognise their ahcievements andencouragement to do better. Incentives can be monetary or non-monetary,provided to emplyees to help motivate them within the work place. (McLeod, 2015).According to (Business Dictionary 2017:online) an incentive is”Inducement or supplemental reward that serves as amotivational device for a desired action or behavior.”3.2 Theory X and Theory Y Analysis(Douglas McGregor – 1957)As explained by (Gannon, 2013) Douglas Mcgregor asocial psychologist, in 1957 proposed a concept of Theroy X and Theory Y, theseare theories of motivation and management. Both theories have opposing set ofassumpitons of how employees are motivated from two differing mangerial styles.McGregor states Theory X is managements duty to organise, control, direct andmodify employees behaviour so they do not become resistant to work.
Predominatly Theory X managemnt style belives that people are lazy and avoidwork when possible, people are irresponisble and therefore need to bemonitored, employees have little contribution to business goals. Overall withTheory X the managers are in almost full control and the typical employee hasno ambition, does not take responsibily and hates work, the only reason theywork is soley for an income. On the other hand Theory Y management style takes a more positiveposition on human nature, as this management style suggests people will be ableto find their work enjoyable if their is acceptable working condtions, theywill feel motivation and fulfilment. Further suggests irresponible behaviour isnot innate, rather that people are able to control and direct themselves.
Alsooutlines employees have the potential to input intellectual contributions totask given. Overall Theory Y challenges employees to to innovate ways ofdirecting and organising human effort. McGregor himself encouraged organisationto adopt this approach, as he belived it could motivate employees the most.Thus managers within organisations today should look to implement a Theory Ymanagement style as suggested by this analysis. 4.
Theoryof Scientific Management Analysis (Frederick Taylor – 1911)As said by (Turan, 2015) Theory of scientificmanagement suggests workers need control and close supervison as naturally theydo not enjoy work, thus task should be broken down into smaller tasks bymanagers. Employees should be provided with efficent training and equipment sothey can carry out set tasks, this theory pushes the concept of paying empoyeesbased on how many items they produce or sell in a set time frame, thereforeleading to higher employee productivity levels as they are being paid by whatthey produce.Being applied in a business sense managers found postivebenefits as productivity increased and unit cost decreased. Taylors theory has beenlinked with mcGregors Theory X as they both see employees as lazy and nonresponisble. However this Taylors theory does have flaws, as empoyees weredissatisfied doing the same tasks repeatedly which lead to strikes withinorganisations. 5. IntrinsicTheory of Motivation5.1 Conceptof Intrinsic MotivationIt is belived by (Deci and Ryan, 2000) Intrinsic motivationrefers to behaviours which are driven by internal rewards, the motivation toparticipate in a behaviour comes from the individual themselves as it isnatuarally satisfying.
An person who is intrinsically motivated willparticipate for the fun associated with a task rather than for the rewards andpressures associated. For example a person which does their job beacause theyenjoy it, find it interesting and challenging, are more inclined to come upwith innovative solutions. When persuing a job beacase you find joy from it,you are intrinsically motivated as the desire to partake in the job comes fromwithin rather than an external reward such as money.
However research has foundoffering external rewards to an intrinsically motivated person can make the jobless intrisically rewarding, this is known as the overjustification effect.5.2 Hierarchyof Needs (Abraham Maslow – 1943)(Kaur, 2013)sates Maslow’s needs hierarchy was developed to help explain human motivation,which can help to understand job satisfaction as well as be applied to theworking environment. As human beings we have needs which are required for longterm development, there are needs which are basic to everyone and without basicneeds nothing else matters, until these needs are satisfied, when satisfied theyare no longer motivators, thus we can move onto satisfying higher needs.Maslow suggests a need is a condition or feeling whichinfluences behaviour over a long period and requires satisfaction, for examplehunger requires satisfaction and when satisfied it will decrease.
Maslowarranged human needs into a pyramid and named this the ‘Hierarchy of Needs’this included (lowest needs to highest needs) Physiological needs which includefood, sleep, salary and shelter to sustain life. Safety needs which includessafe working environment, job security and medical insurance. Love andbelongingness needs which include friends and colleges at work, working part ofa group.
Esteem needs which includes recognition, reputation, achievement, self-respectand attention. Self-actualisation needs which include truth, wisdom and meaning.Maslow further suggest firstly lower level needs must be addressed beforehigher level needs can be addressed, for example a person who has not fullyfulfilled physiological needs such as food, will not be worried about self-actualisationand if they have a high status within an organisation.5.3 Hierarchyof Needs Application and analysisManagers can adopt Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to helpimprove employee motivation and job satisfaction. Firstly, they will need toensure the basic psychological needs are met they can do this by ensuring thatemployees are given a salary which is sufficient to pay for food, drink andshelter. Safety needs will also need tobe accounted for by managers, ensuring employee feel physically safe in theirwork environment, as well as job security and providing company structuresand policies. When satisfied, the employee’s will feel as though they belong tothe workplace.
Therefore, managers should provide team working, interactiveworking environment and focus groups to share ideas, as this will create apositive environment between employee and their workplace allowing them to feela sense of belongingness. Once satisfied, to improve employee esteem levels,managers should include individual bonuses and employee of the month schemes, cateringfor this employees will feel as though they are valued. Managers should allowfor employee self-improvement, where employees can grow and develop in order tobecome everything they are capable of becoming. Progression contributes to theprocess of self-actualisation. Managers should allow for basic needs to be met sothey can progress to higher needs and improve job satisfaction and motivationlevels.
(Kaur, 2013)However,this approach to motivating employees is becoming less popular as it does notaccount for major aspects which play a part in motivation, such as cognitive processingof humans, in addition to this it lacks empirical supporting evidence. Moreover,there have been faults within this theory, specifically within the final stageof self-actualisation, as self-actualisation is difficult to measure, and thereis no clear definition of the term. (Spector, 1997) 6. ConclusionIn conclusion motivatingemployees is a key role for managers to achieve their goals, based on the four theories discussed in thisessay, the way managers motivate employees today has changed drastically, asmany more factors are seen as motivating factors today compared to before, I believethat managers should take away the key from each theory analysed and implementthem into their organisation as this will provide a structure to motivatingemployees and improving their organisation as a whole.