“All things are created twice; first mentally; thenphysically.”-Stephen Covey, 7 Habits of Highly Effective People The genesis of action is the role of the upper motor neuron which are located in the motor cortex of the cerebrum. Inthe spinal cord, the upper motor neuron structurally traverses to theanatomical rendezvous point with the lowermotor neuron, which electronically conveys the instructions to the skeletal muscle. In a nutshell, theupper motor neurons brainstorms the movement, while the lower motor neuronexecutes the instructions by triggering skeletal action. And to use the analogyof Stephen Covey, one is mental (upper) and the other one is the physical action(lower). 2. Astrocytes are multi-taskers as they perform diverse roles from logistical supportthru the shipment of nutrients, juggling the correct ion concentration andreconstruction during neuronal damage.
Due to the core function of astrocytewith repair and maintenance, reactive astrongliosis as a response to injury andinfection is a hallmark feature of CNS disturbance. Microglia is the “Cookie Monster” of the centralnervous system which gobbles up plaques, injured neurons, synapses and pathogens in the central nervous system.The microglial antipodal extremes of low activity (Autism) to over activity (Alzheimer’s)demonstrate pathological effects.
Too many connections of neurons can overwhelm the senses and explainsthe hyperactivity of autistic individuals which are reduced by microglialphagocytosis in normal individuals. Oligodendrocytesproduces myelin sheath to cover axons as insulation in the centralnervous system. Lack of myelination occurs when oligodendrocytes die, andunmyelinated neurons cannot function properly (transmit messages efficiently)as seen in multiple sclerosis. 3. “Penicillincures, but wine makes people happy.” -Alexander Flemming Wine is believed to be targeting a specifictype of GABAA receptors (ionotropic)which allow the entry of chloride ions with a net inhibitory effect.
Thisserves as the inspiration and trigger point for this novel drug to treatgeneralized anxiety. Ethanol mimics GABA with the above described chloride ionbased inhibitory effect. Ethanol acts on the amygdala and the cerebellum whichsummarizes effectively why people drink (relaxing effect and removal ofinhibition via the amygdala) and why drunk people are forbidden to drive, thereduction of motor reflexes via the amygdala. Hence the new drug would ideallyjust target the amygdala to produce the desire antidepressant effect withoutthe harmful effects of alcohol.