1. of our lives. The perspective of childhood has

1. The scope of the field of child development is very
broad and vast. The child development field pertains to how children grow and
develop from conception to the end of adolescence. Some areas of child
development focus on understanding principles of development in children. This
includes concepts such as the rates of which children develop, physical skills
learned by children, and any neurological developments. Other areas seem to
focus more on how race, culture, and other ethnic factors can affect child
development. They also look into what makes each child unique and special. In
other words, what makes this child different from the others. No matter what
area is being evaluated, child development specifically focuses on behavior
from childhood to adolescence.


2. It’s almost hard to imagine a time where children were
not the main focus of our lives. The perspective of childhood has drastically
changed since the 1600’s where children were given no special status and simply
treated as a regular adult. Nowadays, we see childhood as an important time for
children to grow and learn. Childhood is a time for children to learn the basic
rules of life, develop social relationships and friendships among peers, and
ultimately discover who they are as a person. Schooling is a perfect example of
evidence that helps support our perspective of childhood today. School is the
main place where children will learn about the world itself as well as the
negative consequences it has to offer such as bullying and stereotyping.
Families and households also affect how children develop. Whether you have
siblings, divorced parents, or come from a privileged household, all these
factors can shape you into the person you are today.

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3. The field of child development has many key issues and
questions arising in its future. Some of these issues and concerns deal with
how development is changing, whether life span approaches or focused approaches
are more affective, and argument of nature vs. nurture. Child development is
also concerned with whether it is continuous or discontinuous. The three
topical areas of child development include physical development, cognitive
development, and social and personality development. Physical development
mainly focuses on how parts of the body such as the brain and senses affect the
behavior of children. Cognitive development leans more towards how intellectual
abilities can affect the way a child behaves. Social and personality
development looks into what sets individuals apart from one another and how
social relationships change and grow over a period of time.


4. History-graded influences are associated in remarks to a
specific historical event. For example, children who lived in Las Vegas during
the mass shooting may be affected by this particular event. Age-graded
influences focuses on people who are within the same age group. Individuals
will then experience biological events around the same time. A common example
of this would be puberty. Sociocultural-graded influences affect development
due to factors such as social class and ethnicity. Being raised in a different
part of the world will affect how you develop in comparison to someone else.
Lastly, non-normative influences are special life events that are unique to
only one person. An example of this would include winning a competitive golf


5. Locke and Rousseau had almost opposite views on their
perspectives of children. Locke used the term tabula rasa, or blank slate, to
describe a child. In relation to this term, Locke believed children were born
with no personalities or characteristics that set them apart from others. They
were simply shaped by their environment and experiences. Locke’s perspective
goes hand in hand with the nurture aspect of the nature vs. nurture argument.  The nurture point of view also states that
behavior is based off of environmental influences. In contrast, Rousseau
believed that children were born with a sense of morality and a sense of right
and wrong. Unless children were swayed by negative affairs, children were able
to grow into laudable and trustworthy children and adults. Rousseau’s views
correspond with the nature aspect, which says that abilities, traits, and other
characteristics are already there by inheritance from parents.


6. Continuous change and discontinuous change both look at
how the child is developing throughout a period of time. In continuous change,
the change is gradual and quantitative. Each achievement or success is built
from the previous achievement and each underlying processes that drives change
remains the same. For example, height would be continuous change. As a child
grows older, they will normal grow about the same amount each year. As for
discontinuous change, each change occurs in specific steps. Each behavior from
each step is said to be qualitative because the behavior varies for each step.
An example of discontinuous change would be intelligence. Each child doesn’t
necessarily gain the same amount of intelligence each year; it varies from year
to year depending on certain factors.


7. Critical periods are a certain period of time when a
specific event with have its most traumatic effects on the development of the
baby. A critical period can also be a time where certain stimulus is necessary
to help development move along properly. A mother who takes drugs or drinks
alcohol during a critical period may cause irreversible harm and damage to the
growing baby. On the contrary, sensitive periods are a time when a living thing
is more prone to particular stimulus from the environment. In other words, a
sensitive period is the ideal time for particular instances to occur. For
example, if a child is not exposed to language during a sensitive period, then
there may be a delay in language in the child. It is important to introduce
children to certain stimuli in order for proper development.


8. The life span approach allows researchers to study the
development of children from childhood to adolescences. Every stage of life
brings about different changes and growths and with this approach
developmentalists can study and observe each change. Another advantage of the
lifespan approach is that you get to look at a vast amount of aspects that
going into someone’s life. These include things such as social life,
socioeconomic status, relationships and other things. Each of these aspects may
be different at a certain time in someone’s life. This also involves the people
who influence development every day. Parent’s, for instance, will play a huge
impact on the development of a child. Two parents will not parent their
children the exact same way another set of parents does, causing children to
develop differently and uniquely.


9. Just like many other studies, the field of child
development has many future trends on its way. Like most research, child
development will soon become specialized as new studies will emerge. As the
field continues to grow, many different perspectives will start to arise as
well. New information will also become apparent in the future, and work from
cognitive, biological and social factors will be tied together. To this day,
the United States’ ethic and racial culture is continuing to expand. This
growth will lead researchers to pay more attention to things involving
particular issues in diversity. Lastly, professionals in numerous fields will
pull and draw information from the findings of developmentalists, making their
work even more useful and beneficial to all.

10. In any situation, you can’t always trust the
information you find. Whether you find information on the TV, a newspaper, or
the internet, this by no means makes the information legitimate. One strategy
for determining if information is valid is by checking where it came from. You
would be better off trusting something found on an AMA page versus finding
something on Wikipedia where anyone can edit things. Another thing to look for
when checking credibility is to research the author and check out there credentials.
A well-known, knowledgeable expert would know more than someone with
untrustworthy credentials. Lastly, the popular opinion is not always the
correct one. Many people may believe something is true, but that doesn’t
necessarily mean it is accurate.