1. experience risk factors but at the same time

1.    Research is very important not only tothose who are in the academic/learning institution but to everyone who aims tocontribute for the betterment of their organization or the world. Thus, anyonewho is dealing with child and adolescent or who is in this field of psychologyneeds to realize that research is a means of building knowledge andunderstanding issues of child and/or adolescent. Teachers or practitioners ofchild and adolescent psychology can benefit from it since conducting researchis not only limited to increasing understanding but it also help them changeand improve their point of view about the current state of the child/adolescentand applying what they have discovered can make it even better.

In simpleterms, research is made to inform action and it is purposefully to produceknowledge that may have implications for future implementation.  2.    The course of child and adolescentdevelopment is influenced by a range of risk and protective factors. Thosefactors that are identified to increase the probability of the adverse outcomesof the child’s development is known as risk factors such as poverty, familyconflict, abuse, hostility and etc. Conversely, those factors, such as parentalattachment, family harmony and education, that are known to reduce or offsetthe adverse effects of risks factors, are called protective factors. We cannotdeny that environment plays a vital role in the child’s development and it isresponsible, along with genes, for whatever outcome a child will become. Notall children who are exposed to multiple risk factors will go on experiencingadverse outcomes because those children who experience risk factors but at thesame time exposed with protective factors are more likely to become resilientto adversity.

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Therefore, it does not necessarily follow that when a child isexposed to risk factors, he/she will then automatically experience adverseeffects. It will always depend on the child’s source of protective factors thatcan determine the resiliency of the child to the adverse outcomes.  3.    Preschool is the most critical stagewhere a child goes through the most rapid growth and development in which theirbrains develop faster than any other point in their lives during this stage.Thus, preschool teachers are very essential to a child’s development since theyare considered the first teacher experience of a child in a school setting.

They can either promote a child’s desire to learn or can halt their academiclearning development. It may be true that there are no primary academiclearning skills a child can get during preschool but an effective teacher canbuild a whole child such that they can learn the basic social skills, and theycan have an opportunity to develop a structured way of life which is essentialas they grow even more mature. Since during this stage the brain is stillforming important neural paths, it is the duty of a preschool teacher to shapethe areas that are necessary for the development of the child’s ability toperform and function well not only in school. By shaping, it means exposure tothese areas such that their brain can develop strong connections responsiblefor the functions of these specific areas.   4.

    In general, children are expected togrow and develop in specific phases; however, differences of the rate of growthand motor development of every child differ in terms of gender, socioeconomicstatus and ethnicity. Gender, for example, is a consideration why I can saythat there are differences in the growth and motor development as males tend toaccelerate in strength and height during puberty compared to females.Purportedly, males are expected to do the hard and heavy work while females arefor delicate and sensitive work thus their bodies are designed in relation totheir roles in the society. Socioeconomic status also indirectly affects thegrowth and motor development of children in such a way that their parents wouldnot be able to give enough nutrition for their children which is necessary fortheir development. Lastly, the culture and practices of a group such as theirchild-rearing practices can strongly impact the development of motor skills.   5.    Positive reinforcement is giving areward to a child to increase repetition of the response. For example, a parentrewards a chocolate to a child who cleans his/her room increases the likelihoodthat the child will keep on cleaning the room to keep receiving a chocolate.

Forthe negative reinforcement, it is also increasing the likelihood of a responsethrough removing an aversive stimulus. Example, a person who is experiencingback pain discovers that when he lays his back in bed, it removes the pain;thus every time his back aches, he just lays his back to eliminate pain.Punishment, on the other hand, refers to reducing or stopping a response orbehavior through giving consequences. For example, a child is given a detentionfor purposefully boxing his classmate during the class.

It is punishmentbecause the child is given a negative consequence after he has shown anunfavorable behavior towards his classmate.  6.    Piaget’s theory deals with the child’scognitive development wherein it is well-known within the fields of psychologydespite being a subject of considerable criticisms. The strengths of Piaget’stheory can be summarized into two: firstly, it has an important impact oneducation such that his theory tried to explain the child’s thought processesin stages. His theory has been beneficial to teachers and parents inunderstanding a child’s developmental level and it is also used in creatingprograms for learning in consideration of their mental preparedness to learn.Secondly, a considerable number of researches have been influenced by his viewof cognitive development where it encouraged most to understand the cognitiveprocesses of a child. However, there are much more weaknesses of his theorythan its strengths and some of these are his underestimation of the ability ofa child’s intellect.

Additionally, his theory is limited to child developmentand failed to discover development after childhood. Lastly, his theory does notapply to disabled children or children who are considered late developers. Histheory is only applicable to those who follow normal development.  7.    The zone of proximal development,according to Vygotsky, is the difference of what a child can do alone and whata child can do with help. As Vygotsky believes that it is often through socialinteraction with peers in which a child can benefit in developing skills andstrategies, he suggested that parents or teachers have to use a cooperativelearning exercise where a child can develop with the help from more skillfulpeers, and that is within the zone of proximal development. One example of thisis when a child is able to successfully solve a math problem when working witha teacher or parent, but is unable to do the task alone. By guiding the studenthow to solve the math problem using the formula or solving technique, and by confirmingthrough asking questions on what is the use of the formula or technique, thestudent is able to fortify knowledge and can eventually learn how to solve mathproblems independently.

  8.    Slow processing speed impacts learningand it can make it harder for young children to master the basics of reading,writing and counting. However, an infant tends to have slow processing speedbecause of myelination, limited language and knowledge. When a child is born,myelination has already occurred but is not yet complete in the prefrontalcortex until late adolescence.

The prefrontal cortex is responsible for the cognitiveprocesses such as planning and decision making thus, it is normal for an infantthat they have slow processing speed since their brains are not yet fullydeveloped. As their brains develop overtime, their processing speed alsoimproves.  9.

   Thecomponents of three-layer model of information processing consists of thesensory register, working memory, long term memory and executive functions. As thesecomponents are different in terms of their capacity to store information, theyare all connected and responsible in the processing of information.  Additionally, they are interconnected as theyall require attention for it to be able to process and store information intheir respective storage. Take for example in the sensory register, our sensoryregister has been bombarded with a lot of information all the time and it actsas a filter in processing only those important information which caught our attentionwhile neglecting all unnecessary ones. An information can proceed to the workingmemory if it has been a subject of our attention as well as it can go throughthe long term memory whenever the information has been considered important.   10.

  As the brain develops, it becomes morecapable of processing complex information such that it can reason and solveproblems, considering normal child development. However, for the reasoning andproblem solving skills to be developed, constant use of the brain that isresponsible for the development of these areas should be enhanced. In the classroomsetting, students require thinking to test out ideas, to make conjectures, to discussideas with others and to think beyond the box. Teachers can support the studentsto develop the skills they need to tackle problems by the classroom culture theycreate. It needs to be one where questioning and deep thinking are valued,mistakes are seen as useful, all students contribute and their suggestions arevalued, and students learn from shared discussion with the teacher and peers.