1. A voluntary agreement to participate in research is

1.    Describe the meaning of informed consent
and identify issues relating to it on research human subjects

                                                                                                                        

A
voluntary agreement to participate in research is called informed consent.
State as ethical codes and regulations in research, it is vital to protect
confidentiality and the rights of a volunteer who participate in a research. There
are three basic principles of informed consent which is autonomy, beneficence
and justice. Two elements of the informed consent is information element and
consent element.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Informed
consent is an important requirement before a participant especially vulnerable
population taking part in a research. Informed consent should be documented
using a simple language purposely to ensure it is easily understood by the
participant. More than just a form that is signed but it is actually a process in
which the subject has an understanding of the research and its risks.

The
Belmont Report and the Nuremberg Code both state voluntary informed consent as
fundamental for the ethical conduct of human subject research. So essentials
elements should be included in an informed consent. Informed Consent should
include all this component for all human subject research such as therapeutic,
interventional, diagnostic, social and behavioral studies. A good informed
consent also provide information to the subject about his rights, the purpose and
objective of the study, the flow of the procedures, and explanation regarding the
potential risks and benefits of participation. Not only physical injury but
also possible psychological, social, or economic harm, discomfort, or
inconvenience Subjects feel free to participate or not. Statement regarding the
subjects’ right to confidentiality and right to withdraw from the study at any
time without any consequences. Person to contact for answers regarding any
question related to research or study should be clearly written.

There is some issues related to informed consent on
human research subject. Firstly, language barriers. All participant was assumed
to understand the informed consent once it was signed but misunderstanding
still can occur because incorrect or inadequate information. Most of the
subject or participant signing the informed consent without being fully aware or
not fully understand what its all about. Poor translation is one of the factor.
So, researcher must performed informed consent in multilingual.

Second
issues is religious influence. A
participant’s decision making sometimes influenced by their religious belief.
Hence, not all subject willing to taking part in research voluntarily. Informed consent is important tool in research
and no any research activity will be carried out until it is complete.
Another issues related to human subjects is false expectations and false perceptions. Although explanation and
information was clearly provide and given, most of participant-to-be fear of being as experimental model or had
rumors known to them regarding the misconduct or failure of the study.

Vulnerable people and groups include
the person who is absolutely or relatively incapable of protecting their
interests. As the example prisoners, children under age, pregnant women,
elderly people or disable people .To obtain informed consent is difficult to
get from them. So that they are creating many problem because their misunderstanding
regarding the research purpose, their role in the research and the process of
the research. Hence, special approach must to be taken to develop the
appropriate strategies to communicate properly with them and to make sure that
the message is delivered clearly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2)   
Discuss
the major ethical principles that guide researchers in the works.

Research
is usually done using human beings with feelings and experiences. Method of
data in some studies also touched confidential, emotional, rights, personal
things, and the truth of the subjects. Respondents have secret or confidential
information, which cannot be known by others. When disclosed or announced will
have a negative impact on certain parties, researchers need to know the ethics
of research before planning and conducting research.

Ethics
is derived from the Greek word meaning “ethos” which means the common
sense that is commonly matched by systematic studies of the concept of ‘good’,
‘bad’, ‘right’ and ‘wrong’. Ethical issues are the dilemmas and conflicts that
may arise on a ‘suitable’ method for conducting research. Ethics determine what
can be done by a researcher and things cannot be done by the researchers.

Based
on ethics in research, a researcher must:

a)    Research
Participant Protection

b)    Confidentiality
of Research Participant Information

c)    Power
Options for Engagement in Research / Issue Coercion

d)    Initial
Explanation About Research / Informed Consent

e)    Avoiding
Deceptive Practices

 

a)   Research
Participant Protection

During
research, participating participants should be protected against any negative
effects that may be either physically or mentally. Allow sufficient time for
the respondent to answer questions and not ask questions that embarrass, or
cause emotional turmoil unpleasant experiences. Hence, the researcher must
fully inform the subject of any possible occurrence during the research.

 

 

 

b)   Confidentiality
of Research Participant Information

Any
participant’s information should be protected from the general public
information unless the participants have given written consent that allows the
researcher to disclose such information to the public. For example, in survey
surveys, respondents’ names need not be stated. Researchers should never
disclose information about the sample of the study until it can interfere with
the safety or dignity of the respondents. Personal rights must be protected and
cannot be known

 

c)   Power
Options for Engagement in Research / Issue

Participant has the right to be involved
in or not in research, without compulsion. Although elected, the participant is
entitled to withdraw from involvement in the research at any time, with or
without any reason.

 

d)   Initial
Explanation About Research / Informed Consent

An
initial explanation should be given to the participants about the research they
will participate in so they can choose whether to engage or not in the
research. One of the measures to ensure ethics in research is through the use
of an informed consent form. The form must be read and signed by the
participant or guardian/parent (if it involves a child).

 

e)   Avoiding
deceptive practices

Researchers must clearly
disclose the data and findings, explaining the procedure of the investigation
and publishing status with honesty. Researchers absolutely cannot falsify data
or attempt to deceive colleagues or involved agencies and the general public
about them. It is unethical if a researcher only refers to and reports the
literature that is in agreement with the problem and avoids any other study.
For example, if a researcher enters financial aid for his study it is likely
that it will exaggerate the importance of his research and wilfully does not
refer to a study that does not support his request. (Gay & Diehl, 1992:96;
Forcese & Richer, 1973:5)

 

Good research
features include scientific and ethical perspectives. Issues become more
pronounced in social research where the subject is a human who has feelings,
intellect and is influenced by social and religious values. Research such as
weapons is neutral but human beings determine whether it is used to advance
society or destroy it.