1. (a) Identify the main components of an information


      (a) Identify the main components of aninformation system. What is a mission-critical system? Themain components of an Information System are hardware, software, people anddata.Examplesof Information System: ATM, Online Reservation System.

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A mission-critical system is one that isvital to a company’s operations. An order processing system, for example, ismission-critical because the company cannot do business without it. (b) Compare enterprise computing systems totransaction processing systems with example.  Enterprise computing Transaction processing (TP) systems Enterprise computing systems refers to information systems that support company-wide operations and data management requirements. Transaction processing (TP) systems process data generated by day-to-day business operations. TP systems perform a series of tasks whenever a specific transaction occurs.   The main objective of enterprise computing is to integrate a company’s primary functions (such as production, sales, services, inventory control, and accounting) to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and help managers make key decisions.

TP systems typically involve large amounts of data and are mission-critical systems because the enterprise cannot function without them. In many large companies, applications called enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems provide cost-effective support for users and managers throughout the company.   TP systems are efficient because they process a set of transaction-related commands as a group rather than individually, Enterprise computing also improves data security and reliability by imposing a company-wide framework for data access and storage. To protect data integrity, however, TP systems ensure that if any single element of a transaction fails, the system does not process the rest of the transaction.

     2.      (a) Briefly explain the difference between variousSystems Development Methods.Thevarious systems development methods are structured analysis, object orientedanalysis, agile methods.

  Structured Analysis Object Oriented Analysis Agile Methods Description Represents the system in terms of data and the processes that act upon that data. System development is organised into phases, with deliverable milestones to measure progress. The waterfall model typically consists of five phases: requirements, design, construction, testing, and maintenance & evolution. Iteration is possible among the phases. Views the system in terms of objects that combine data and processes. The objects represent actual people, things, transactions, and events. Compared to structural analysis, O-O phases tend to be more interactive.

Can use the waterfall model or a model that stresses greater iteration. Stresses intense team-based effort. Breaks development into cycles, or iterations, that add functionality. Each cycle is designed, built, and tested in an ongoing process. Attempts to reduce major risks by incremental steps in short time intervals. Modelling Tools Data flow diagrams (DFDs) and process descriptions.

Also, business process modelling. Various object-oriented diagrams depict system actors, methods, and messages. Also, business process modelling. Tools that enhance communication, such as collaborative software, brainstorming, and whiteboards. Business process modelling works well with agile methods. Pros Traditional method that has been very popular over time. Relies heavily on written documentation. Frequent phase iteration can provide flexibility comparable to other methods.

Well-suited to traditional project management tools and techniques. Integrates easily with object-oriented programming languages. Code is modular and reusable, which can reduce cost and development time. Easy to maintain and expand because new objects can be created using inherited properties. Very flexible and efficient in dealing with change.

Stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values. Frequent deliverables constantly validate the project and reduce risk. Cons Changes can be costly, especially in later phases.

Requirements are defined early, and can change during development. Users might not be able to describe their needs until they can see examples of features and functions. Somewhat newer method might be less familiar to development team members. Interaction of objects and classes can be complex in larger systems.

Team members need a high level of technical and communications skills. Lack of structure and documentation can introduce risk factors. Overall project might be subject to scope change as user requirements change. Examples Waterfall Model   Spiral Model  (b) Describe how CASE is used to support eachphase of the SDLC.Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE), also called computer-aidedsoftware engineering, is a technique that uses powerful software, calledCASE tool, to help systemsanalysts develop and maintain information systems.

CASEtools provide an overall framework for systems development and support a widevariety of design methodologies, including structured analysis andobject-oriented analysis.Functionsof a CASE ToolAnalysis CASE analysis tools automatically check for incomplete, inconsistent, or in correct specifications in diagrams, forms and reports.Design This is where the technical blueprint of the system is created by designing the technical architecture – choosing amongst the architectural designs of telecommunications, hardware and software that will best suit the organization’s system and future needs. Also designing the systems model – graphically creating a model from graphical user interface, screen design, and databases, to placement of objects on screenCode generation CASE Tool has code generators which enable the automatic generation of program and data base definition code directly from the documents, diagrams, forms, and reports.Documentation CASE Tool has documentation generators to produce technical and user documentation in standard forms. Each phase of the SDLC produces documentation. The types of documentation that flow from one face to the next vary depending upon the organization, methodologies employed and type of system being built.How theOrganization uses CASE tools:Here are the ways where the CASE tools are used: To facilitate single design methodology: CASE tools help the organization to standardize the development process.

It also facilitates coordinated development. Integration becomes easy as common methodology is adopted.   Rapid Application Development: To improve the speed and quality of system development organizations use CASE tools.   Testing: CASE tools help in improving the testing process through automated checking and simplified program maintenance.   Documentation: In a traditional software development process, the quality of documentation at various stages depends on the individual. At various stages of SDLC CASE tools improve the quality and uniformity of documentation.

It also ensures the completeness of the documentation.   Project Management: It improves project management activity and to some extent automates various activities involved in project management.   Reduce the maintenance cost: Useof CASE tools makes the software easy to maintain and hence reduce themaintenance costs.7. Increase Productivity:        Automation of various activities ofsystem development and management processes increases       productivityof the development team. 3.

      What is a SWOT analysis? Prepare a SWOT analysis ofyour school or your employer.Theletters SWOT stand for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. ASWOT analysis canfocus on a specific product or project, an operating division, theentire company, or themission statement itself. The overall aim is to avoid seekinggoals that are unrealistic,unprofitable, or unachievable. A SWOT analysis examines a firm’stechnical, human, and financial resources. Below is the SWOT analysis of mycollege  Strength Weakness Knowledgeable instructors, Quality Programs, Reasonable fees, Availability of online study materials, Online Portal, Free Wi-Fi Remote Location, Limited Public Transportation, Expensive car parking, Strict rules for submitting assignments, Compulsory attendance Opportunities Threats Co-op opportunities, Placement in MNCs, Multi-cultural environment, Interactive classes, Well funded Student Unions Failing students, Decline in funding for higher education, Unpredictable weather makes commute difficult  4.      What is a fishbone diagram, and why would you useone? Think of a problem you have experienced at school or work, and draw asample fishbone diagram with at least two levels.

 Afishbone diagram is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of aproblem as a graphical outline. In many cases, the systems request does notreveal the underlying problem, but only a symptom. For example, a request toinvestigate centralized processing delays mightrevealimproper scheduling practices rather than hardware problems.  In such cases a fishbone diagram used for investigatingcauses and effects. When using a fishbone diagram, an analyst first states theproblem and draws a main bone with sub-bones that represent possible causes ofthe problem.Sample fishbonediagram of a problem that I experienced at work.