1. (a) Identify the main components of an
information system. What is a mission-critical system?
main components of an Information System are hardware, software, people and
of Information System: ATM, Online Reservation System.
A mission-critical system is one that is
vital to a company’s operations. An order processing system, for example, is
mission-critical because the company cannot do business without it.
(b) Compare enterprise computing systems to
transaction processing systems with example.
Transaction processing (TP)
computing systems refers to information systems
operations and data management requirements.
processing (TP) systems process
data generated by day-to-day business operations. TP systems perform a series
of tasks whenever a specific transaction occurs.
The main objective of enterprise
computing is to integrate a company’s primary functions (such as production,
sales, services, inventory control, and accounting) to improve efficiency,
reduce costs, and help managers make key decisions.
TP systems typically involve
large amounts of data and are mission-critical systems because the enterprise
cannot function without them.
In many large companies,
applications called enterprise
resource planning (ERP)
systems provide cost-effective
support for users and managers throughout the company.
TP systems are efficient because
they process a set of transaction-related commands as a group rather than
Enterprise computing also
security and reliability by
imposing a company-wide framework for data access and storage.
To protect data integrity,
however, TP systems ensure that
if any single element of a transaction fails, the system does not process the
rest of the transaction.
2. (a) Briefly explain the difference between various
Systems Development Methods.
various systems development methods are structured analysis, object oriented
analysis, agile methods.
system in terms of data and the processes that act upon that data. System
development is organised into phases, with deliverable milestones to measure
progress. The waterfall model typically consists of five phases:
requirements, design, construction, testing, and maintenance & evolution.
Iteration is possible among the phases.
Views the system in terms
of objects that combine
data and processes. The
objects represent actual
people, things, transactions, and
events. Compared to
structural analysis, O-O
phases tend to be more
interactive. Can use the
waterfall model or a model that
stresses greater iteration.
Stresses intense team-based effort.
Breaks development into cycles, or iterations,
that add functionality. Each cycle
is designed, built, and tested in an ongoing process.
Attempts to reduce major risks by
incremental steps in
Data flow diagrams (DFDs) and
process descriptions. Also, business process modelling.
diagrams depict system
actors, methods, and
messages. Also, business process
Tools that enhance
communication, such as
process modelling works well with
Traditional method that has been
very popular over time. Relies heavily on written
documentation. Frequent phase
iteration can provide flexibility
comparable to other methods. Well-suited
to traditional project management tools and
Integrates easily with
programming languages. Code is
modular and reusable, which can reduce
cost and development time. Easy
to maintain and expand because new objects can be created using inherited
Very flexible and efficient in
dealing with change. Stresses team
interaction and reflects
a set of community-based values.
Frequent deliverables constantly validate the project and reduce risk.
Changes can be costly,
especially in later phases. Requirements
are defined early,
and can change during
development. Users might not be
able to describe their needs
until they can see examples of
Somewhat newer method
might be less familiar to development
members. Interaction of
objects and classes can be
complex in larger
Team members need a high
level of technical and
communications skills. Lack
of structure and
introduce risk factors.
Overall project might be
subject to scope change as
(b) Describe how CASE is used to support each
phase of the SDLC.
Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE), also called computer-aided
software engineering, is a technique that uses powerful software, called
CASE tool, to help systems
analysts develop and maintain information systems.
tools provide an overall framework for systems development and support a wide
variety of design methodologies, including structured analysis and
of a CASE Tool
CASE analysis tools automatically check for incomplete, inconsistent, or
in correct specifications in diagrams, forms and reports.Design
This is where the technical blueprint of the system is created by
designing the technical architecture – choosing amongst the architectural
designs of telecommunications, hardware and software that will best suit
the organization’s system and future needs. Also designing the systems
model – graphically creating a model from graphical user interface, screen
design, and databases, to placement of objects on screenCode generation
CASE Tool has code generators which enable the automatic generation of
program and data base definition code directly from the documents,
diagrams, forms, and reports.Documentation
CASE Tool has documentation generators to produce technical and user
documentation in standard forms. Each phase of the SDLC produces
documentation. The types of documentation that flow from one face to the
next vary depending upon the organization, methodologies employed and type
of system being built.
Organization uses CASE tools:
Here are the ways where the CASE tools are used:
To facilitate single design
CASE tools help the organization to standardize the development process.
It also facilitates coordinated development. Integration becomes easy as
common methodology is adopted.
Rapid Application Development:
To improve the speed and quality of system development organizations use
CASE tools help in improving the testing process through automated
checking and simplified program maintenance.
In a traditional software development process, the quality of
documentation at various stages depends on the individual. At various
stages of SDLC CASE tools improve the quality and uniformity of
documentation. It also ensures the completeness of the documentation.
It improves project management activity and to some extent automates
various activities involved in project management.
the maintenance cost:
of CASE tools makes the software easy to maintain and hence reduce the
Automation of various activities of
system development and management processes increases productivity
of the development team.
3. What is a SWOT analysis? Prepare a SWOT analysis of
your school or your employer.
letters SWOT stand for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. A
SWOT analysis can
focus on a specific product or project, an operating division, the
entire company, or the
mission statement itself. The overall aim is to avoid seeking
goals that are unrealistic,
unprofitable, or unachievable. A SWOT analysis examines a firm’s
technical, human, and financial resources.
Below is the SWOT analysis of my
Quality Programs, Reasonable fees, Availability of online study materials,
Online Portal, Free Wi-Fi
Remote Location, Limited
Expensive car parking,
Strict rules for submitting assignments, Compulsory attendance
Placement in MNCs, Multi-cultural environment, Interactive classes, Well
funded Student Unions
Decline in funding for
makes commute difficult
4. What is a fishbone diagram, and why would you use
one? Think of a problem you have experienced at school or work, and draw a
sample fishbone diagram with at least two levels.
fishbone diagram is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a
problem as a graphical outline. In many cases, the systems request does not
reveal the underlying problem, but only a symptom. For example, a request to
investigate centralized processing delays might
improper scheduling practices rather than hardware problems. In such cases a fishbone diagram used for investigating
causes and effects. When using a fishbone diagram, an analyst first states the
problem and draws a main bone with sub-bones that represent possible causes of
diagram of a problem that I experienced at work.