1.1 INTRODUCTION:Definition:”Any liquid intended for sale for humanconsumption, either without or after dilution, but excluding water, fruit juice,milk or milk preparations, tea, coffee, cocoa, egg products, meat, yeast, orvegetable extracts, soups, vegetables juices, intoxicating liquor”Theterm soft drinks encompassesall non-alcoholicdrinks (including non-alcoholic beer and wine and water), but in commonusage tea, coffee, etc., and milk-based drinks are usually excluded.
Softdrinks were derived from the two mainsources, fruit-flavored sparkling waters associated with the popularity ofthe great European spas andnon-alcoholic versions of domestically brewed herb beers. The temperancemovement of the 19th century provided a major stimulus for the softdrinks industry which, in the UK,grew to a very large size. Although relatively small-scale manufacturecontinues today at a local level, much of the industry operates on a national and supra-national level, and the efforts of the CocaColaTM and PepsiColaTM companies to establish a globalhegemony. New products have been developed within established brand names, suchas the variants of CocaColaTM but over the years many traditional products,especially those derived from herbal brews, have disappeared.
CARBONATEDDRINKS:Carbonatedsoft drinks are invariably consumed withoutdilution, and include crushes, citrus comminutes and lemonade andother drinks of the latter category, including colas and mixerdrinks. GLOBAL TOP 10 CARBONATED DRINK COMPANIES Off-trade volume Volume Company 1 Coca-Cola 2 PepsiCo Inc 3 Groupe Danone 4 Nestle SA 5 Tingyi Holdings corps 6 Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc 7 Suntory Holdings Ltd 8 Hangzhou Wahaha Group 9 Uni-President Enterprises Corp 10 Aje Group 1.2 INGREDIENTSOF CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS: INGREDIENTS OF THE CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS Water Syrup Sweetener Acidulants Colors Preservatives Antioxidants Emulsifiers Stabilizers Clouding Agents Foaming Agents 1.3 MANUFACTURING OF CARBONATEDSOFT DRINKS:(a) WATER PRETREATMENT:· Major ingredient, comprising 90% ofthe total.
· The quality of water used has directimplications for the end product-quality and pretreatmentis invariably required.· The nature of the pre-treatment variesaccording to the source of the water and its chemical composition. · Removal of microscopic and colloidalparticles by coagulation and filtration, softening and pH adjustment(alkalinity reduction) may all, however, be necessary where water supplies areof poor quality.· Disinfectionis required where municipal water supplies are used in order to removebacteria.
· Chlorinationis preferred for the destruction ofvegetative microorganisms andis advantageous in removing oxidizable materials in addition to soluble ironcompounds, and also in aiding coagulation processes. Chemical aspects of treatmentrequired super-chlorination with doses above 2 mg/l. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IMPURITIES IN WATER AND QUALITY DEFECTS IN CARBONATED DRINKS Impurity Standard Defect Taste Tasteless Off-flavor Odor Odorless Off-odor, off-flavor Color 5 hazen units Off color, off-flavor Turbidity 1 mg/l1 Off color, off-flavor Sediment None Sediment, off-odor, off- flavor Free Chlorine 0.05 mg/l Off-flavor Manganese 0.3 mg/l Off-flavor, sediment Lead 0.1 mg/l Toxic Copper 0.5 mg/l Toxic Fluoride 2.
0 mg/l Mottles teeth Nitrate 10 mg/l2 Possible illness in young children, damage to cans Nitrite 1 mg/l2 Possible illness in young children, nitrosamine formation De-aerationof water is required to facilitate subsequent carbonation andfillingoperations and to improve the perceived quality of the dispended drink. Iteither uses a vacuum to remove all dissolved gases or CO2 stripping,in which case some CO2 remains in solution after de-aeration.(b) SUGAR SYRUP PREPARATION:· Preparation of sugar syrup is relatively a simple procedure involvingmixing of ingredients, measured either manually or automatically, in stainlesssteel tanks fitted with top-driven agitators.· A recent practice includes heattreatment of the sugar syrup using plate heat exchanger. FLAVOURING Fruit juice Essences Vegetable and nut extracts Herb extracts Product specific flavorings such as quinine Sweeteners:· Sweetness is an important aspect of thecharacter of soft drinks and in many countries minimum sugar contents arestipulated. · In the UK, for instance, minimum addedsugar of soft drinks consumed without dilution is 4.5% (w/v), with theexception of ‘dry’ ginger ale where the lower level of 3% is permitted.
· In continental Europe, traditional soft drinks are sweetened with sucrose derivedfrom sugar beet, while in the UK cane sucrose is also used.· UK regulations also permit the use ofthe intensesweetener “saccharin” and forthis reason tend to have lower sucrose content than equivalent drinks producedin continentalEurope.· Sucrose may be added in dry (granular)form or as 67% (w/v) aqueous syrup.· The major sugar replacement for sucroseis HFCS(High Fructose Corn Syrup) manufacturedby enzymatichydrolysis of starch to glucose, whichis then converted to fructose by glucose isomerase. INTENSE SWEETENERS IN SOFT DRINK FORMULATIONS Sweetener Relative sweetness Acesulfame K 110-200 Alitame 2000-2900 Aspartame 120-215 Cyclamates 30-140 Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone 250-1800 Saccharin 300-700 Stevioside/Stevia 140-280 Sucralose 400-800 Thaumatin 1300-2000 Acidulants:· The acid gives carbonated water a slightlytart flavor.
· Carbonated soft drinks differ fromnon-carbonated in containing carbonic acid. ACIDULANTS IN SOFT DRINK FORMULATION Acidulant Properties Acetic acid Used only where strong, vinegar character improves flavor valance. Ascorbic acid Initiate browning after heat treatment and destabilizes some colors. Citric acid Highly acceptable in fruit drinks Fumaric acid May be used in place of citrate to obtain equivalent palate acidity at lower usage rate.
Less soluble than citric acid. Lactic acid Smooth flavor in comparison with other acids. Malic acid Slightly stronger than citric acid with more pronounced fruitiness. Phosphoric acid Suited to non-fruit drinks. Effective in colas. Tartaric acid More sharply flavored than citric acid and maybe used at lower rates.
Colors:· Coloring has no direct effect on thesensory properties of soft drinks.· Additional coloring is used to reinforcethe consumers perception of flavor where permitted. COLORS IN SOFT DRINK FORMULATION Colors Properties Anthocyanins Attractive red, blue and purple colors. Prone to decolorization Azo dyes Bright colors can be considered lurid.
Caramel Used only in dark, heavy drinks such as colas and root beer. Carotenoids Orange-red color. Fat-soluble. Chlorophyll Green color. Soft natural stable under acidic conditions and in light.
Polymeric dyes Expensive but better performance than natural colors. Preservatives:· Preservatives are used to prevent the spoilagemicroorganisms.· Four main types of preservatives used inthe carbonated soft drinks are:o Sulphur dioxideo Benzoic acid and benzoateso Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid(parabens)o Sorbic acid and sorbates PRESERVATIVES IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS FORMULATION Preservatives Properties Benzoic acid & benzoates Effective against a wide range of microorganisms Synergistic with SO2 Allergenic Parabens More effective than benzoic acid at pH above 3 Antimicrobial agent Allergenic Sorbic acid & sorbates More effective at low pH Allergenic Sulphur dioxide Most effective at pH values below 4 Effective against yeast, moulds and gram negative bacteria Allergenic Antioxidants:· Antioxidants added before emulsificationin order to retard oxidation which maybe initiated by the introductionof air.· Ascorbic acid(Vitamin C) employedto protect sensitive compounds in the aqueous.· BHA (Butylated HydroxyAnisole) andBHT (Butylated Hyrdroxy Toluene) arethe most widely used antioxidants in the past which is now replaced by Tocopherols,syntheticTocopherols and Ascorbyl Palmitate and its salts.Emulsifiers:· Emulsions impartcloud and flavor.
Clouding agents:· The clouding agent contributes to the opacitywithout affecting the stability by producing creaming, ringing or separationand must also have no effect on color, taste and odor.Stabilizers:· Stabilizers are used both to stabilize emulsions aswell as maintain the dispersion of fruit solids.· Increase viscosity.· Improves mouth feel.Foaming agents:· A head of foam is considered desirablein carbonated drinks, such as in shandy, ginger beerand colas.· The most effective foaming agents are:o Saponinso Quillaliaextracto Yuccaextract CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS Antioxidants Ascorbic Acid BHA (Butylated Hydroxy Anisole) BHT (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene) Ascorbyl palmitate and its salts Natural and synthetic tocopherols Emulsifiers Proteins Sucrose esters Stabilizers Extract of Quillalia Guar gum Clouding agents Guar gum Foaming agents Quillalia extract Yucca extract (c) CARBONATION AND FILLING:”Addition of carbon dioxide OR impregnation of a liquid with CO2 is referred toas carbonation.
“Carbonationtakes place in two ways: eitherall ingredients are dissolved in water or CO2 is added OR CO2 is first dissolved inwater and added to the mixture of ingredients.Carbon dioxide gas gets dissolvedin water at a low concentration (0.2-1.0%)that creates carbonic acid (H2CO3)which is responsible for extra sparkle in the mouth-feel, flavor and bite.H2O+ CO2 ® H2CO3· CO2 is the only gas suitable for producing the sparkle in carbonated drinks.
· The solubilityis such as to allow retention in solution at ambienttemperature and yet also allow therelease of and attractive swirl of bubbles fromthe drink when slightly agitated this phenomenon is known as effervescence and is expected in the carbonated drinks.(d) BOTTLING:· Carbonatedbeverages are filled into either:o Bottles(PET bottles)o Cans (Ring-pull type)1.4 ADVANTAGES OF DISADVANTAGES CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS:· Assists in masking taste of certaindrugs.· It contains large proportion of sugarwhich is a cause of problem for diabetic patients.
· Leads to weight gain.· Suppress hunger feelings.· Injurious for bones as they have theability to dissolves calcium resulting in Osteoporosis.
· Detrimental to body as it has theability to remove blood. 1.5 CONCLUSION:Thegigantic majority of soft drinks are made from heat-treated sugarsyrup and disinfection of water.
Soft drinks, in general, support the growth of only limited microorganisms. SO2is considered effective against all micro-organisms. The elevateddissolved concentration of CO2 is an important factor in order to control thegrowth of microorganisms. Carbonation becomes fully affective at carbonationlevels above 2.5-3 volumes, acetic acid bacteria being most sensitive. Yeasts are the most resistant. Brettanomycesspp. And Dekkera anomala being able to grow in a medium containing 4.
45volume of CO2.