1.1. INTRODUCTION TO SEEDLING IMPLANTER More than half of India’s population is dependent on agriculture either directly or indirectly. The farming involves in multiples stages in order to harvest and obtain a crop. Some of the steps in harvesting a crop are seed implanting, spraying, weeding etc. The farmers should get updated with the modern technology in order to make most use of the technology and yield more amount of crops. The equipment has be developed in such a way that it should meet the food requirements of growing population and developing industrialization. So the machines has to be discovered that can help the farmers to save their time, money and increase the production rate. Backpack sprayer is carried like a backpack by a farmer, it is lever operated and the amount of pesticide delivery is controlled by means of nozzle. The major drawback of the sprayer is, it weighs heavy .Backpack Sprayer shown in Fig. 1.1 Lite Trac Sprayer is a form of Tractor mounted Sprayer with multiple nozzles to spray pesticides, it is mainly used to cover a larger amount of agricultural field. Lite Trac Sprayer is shown in Fig. 1.2 Aerial Sprayer is used to spray pesticide from top of the field by using drones, it is controlled by remote sensors and the main use of the aerial sprayer over others is that it covers the field quickly. Aerial Sprayer shown in Fig .1 .3 An implanter is a tool considered to be used for seedling or implanting a crop. In General, implanters are manually operated by making a impact with surface of the agricultural field as shown in Fig. 1.4 . Pesticides are substances that are meant control pests, most of the farmers use pesticides to control the amount of pests ,insects .Usually the pesticides are sprayed by the farmers from a pesticide tank which is either operated manually or by a motor. Mechanically operated Pesticide Sprayer is shown in Fig. 1.5 . The primary goal of the project is to operate both implanting and spraying tools by mechanisms without use of motors, and to discover a new equipment that helps farmers to save their time, money. 2.1. IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM· In India, most of the farmers implant the crops manually which involves in larger use manpower and more time consuming. · Usually farmers who spray pesticides to the crops rely on backpack sprayers which causes them discomforts like muscular disorders and pain in the joints. Moreover, very small area is covered while spraying and it takes more time. 2.2. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT· The ultimate scope of the project is to spray pesticide to the crops only by operating mechanically. · To implant two crops simultaneously by means of mechanical linkages. · Done two operationsviz, implanting and sprying of pesticide.2.3. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT· The suggested model can reduce the problems of back pain, since there is no need to carry the tank (pesticides tank) on the back. · Even spreading of pesticides. · Machine can be used in small as well as in large crop area. · Time for implanting the seeds is minimized. · Reduced manpower for implanting and pesticide spraying. 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT· Only a certain type of crops can be implanted. · Some pesticides needs to be sprayed within certain amount of time. · The vehicle cannot be operated in all type of agricultural fields. CHAPTER – 3 LITERATURE SURVEY· Nithish Das, Namit Msake, Vinayak Khawas1 stated that Sprayers are commonly used on farms to spray pesticides, fungicides as means of crop quality control. It gives more productivity in less input. · Shivaraja Kumar, Parameswaramurthy 2 stated that Pesticides are sprayed by pedal operated. It has two large wheel, so it is not compact for all crops. · Akshay M.Narate, Gopal Waghmare3 stated that Spraying of pesticides us to design and fabricate a model that is basically trolly based solar sprayer . The elimination of fuel will make our spraying system eco -friendly. This project is trolly based. we can eliminate back mounting of sprayer and it is good for farmer health. · Dhiraj N. Kumbhare4 stated that Spraying of pesticides by using DC pump run and spraying pesticides with many nozzle. This machine will be operated by remote maintaining to some distance, therefore no harm effect will occur to human health. · Swapnil L.kolhe5 stated that Spraying of pesticides is operated by push type machine. It is little heavy but efficiently working in rough conditions of farm. It is economical therefore affordable for all kind of farmers. It requires comparatively less time for spraying so we can get more fields spraying per day. · Ahalya M, Veena M6 stated that Spraying of pesticides is by semi automatically which using solar power. The semiautomatic sprayer is three wheeled vehicle which sprays pesticide in any given vineyard with almost nil human assistance. · Siddharth Kshirsagar7 stated that the spraying of pesticides and insecticides is traditionally done by farm worker carrying backpack type sprayer which requires more human effort. It makes use reciprocating pump that creates the required pressure for the spraying action. This multifunction device will come in handy that can be put to use in different spraying stages of farming as per process requirement. · Pranil V. Savalakhe, Amit wandhre, Ashish Sontakke,Bhushan Patil8 stated that solar power sowing machine is basically works on vertical discontinuous principle which refers to the vertical movement which can be followed by an individual body in an agricultural field and implements its discontinuous action in relation to the horizontal line of work. · Kyada A. R, patel D. B9 stated that as the seed implanting machine is pushed, wheel is rotating which transmit power to plunger through chain and sprocket mechanism. Now the cam is mounted on sprocket shift which push plunger towards downward direction. Once plunger is penetrate in soil and during the backward stoke flapper is opened so seed get separated from plunger and inserted in the dig. LITERATURE SUMMARY There are no research articles found on a product which can transmit mechanical power for seedling implanting and pesticide sprayer. Hence this project is based on designing and developing a new seedling tool and pesticide sprayer mechanically. For the phase one project work, finite element analysis for the frame of the product is done. CHAPTER – 4 METHODOLOGY4.1 OVERALL METHODOLOGY1. Brief literature surveys regarding pesticide sprayer and implanter.2. Select the type of pesticide sprayer.3. Identification of problems pertaining to the selected type of pesticide sprayer.4. Selection of suitable crop for the experiment.5. Selection of suitable pesticides that are used in the agriculture field.6. Design and modelling of the mechanically operated implanting tool and pesticide sprayer.7. Design and calculation for mechanical pump and belt.8. Finite Element analysis(FEA) of both the frame and whole body of the vehicle.9. Selection of optimized frame configuration.10. Fabrication of the selected implanting tool and pesticide sprayer on the vehicle.11. Report GenerationA schematic representation of the overall methodology is shown in the Fig. 4.1 Select the type of cropSelect type of pesticide and quantitySurvey of onion and potato crop implantationDesign calculation for frame, belt design calculation for mechanical pumpModelling of frame and seedling implanterAnalysis for frameFabricationReport Fig. 4.1 Flow chart of Overall Methodology 4.2 FEA ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY1. Select the type of element.2. Generate coarse mesh for both the frame and set values created.3. Set the boundary conditions for the beam and the frame.4. Load is applied on the frame, and value for Poisson ratio and young’s modulus of the frame is setted.5. Von mises stress is calculated.6. Maximum deformation and stress value is calculated.7. Result is noted.A schematic representation of the overall methodology is shown in the Fig. 4.2 MODEL MESHINGSET THE LOADAPPLY BOUNDARY CONDITIONSSOLVING THE CONDITIONSPOST PROCESSINGRESULT Fig. 4.2 Flow chart of FEA analysis methodology CHAPTER 5DESIGN CALCULATION5.1 SPECIFICATION OF MAIN PARTS OF PUSH OPERATED SPRAY PUMP: Specification of tyre : Specification of tyre 1 Diameter = 500 mm Material = Aluminum & it’s alloySpecification of wheel 1 Diameter = 400 mm Width = 60 mm Material = Rubber Specification of Pulley : Pulley 1: pulley 2:Diameter = 200 mm Diameter = 76.2 mm Material = Cast Iron Material = Cast Iron Type = B Type = B Width = 14 mm Width = 14 mm 5.2 Reciprocating pump calculation:Radius = 0.2 mCylinder diameter = 0.1mSpeed = 20 rpmStoke length= 2r= 2+0.2 = 0.4 mhs = 0.05 mhd = 0.6 mArea = d2 = =0.0079 m2 Number of revolution per second = = =0.33Discharge of the pump per second (Q) = = = 0.0010 Weight of water delivered per second = = 1000*9.81*0.0010 = 10.2730 w Power required(P) = = 10.2730*(0.05+0.60) = 6.67*10-3 KW CHAPTER 6STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 6.1 INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Structural analysis is nothing but a calculation of effect of loads by means of stress, strain, deformation on physical structures and components. In this type of analysis the structure must withstand the load applied. The fitness for use can only be determined with the result of the structural analysis. The analysis of structure can be estimated by employing the fields of material science, engineering mechanics, strength of materials .6.2 THE FEA MODELING PROCESS Interpret the given design into the analysis software, from there mesh can be created to divide the structural into discrete sections. Boundary condition is applied for given geometry then stimulation is made to run. If the design is safe the result is noted ,if not, the mesh is refined and the process is repeated till the design becomes safe. The flow chart of structural modelling process is shown in Fig. 6.1 Refine MeshInput GeometryCreate MeshDefine boundary conditionRun simulationInterpret resultResultNoYes Fig. 6.1 The flow chart of FEA modeling process 6.2.1 INPUT GEOMETRY Once the 3D modelling of the vehicle if finished, the frame used to carry both implanter and pesticide sprayer is taken and it is imported to the FEA analysis software. Import frame into ANSYS is to find the maximum load to withstand. 6.2.2 MESH GENERATION After finishing the design for frame of the vehicle, it is exported to the ANSYS Mesh (v. 16.2). Further the frame is meshed by applying coarse mesh. By action coarse mesh the frame splits into small sectors. The separation of small sectors of the frame and applying load on the frame improves the accuracy of analysis. The mesh statistics are shown in table 5.1. the frame mesh attributes is shown in table 5.2 Fig. 6.2 Mesh of the frame 6.2.3 BOUNDARY CONDITION Once the mesh is fixed, then the boundary condition is fixed. Here the frame is assumed to be simply supported by which the one end is fixed and other end is supported by a roller. Then the values of Poisson ratio and young’s modulus are set. The boundary condition of the frame is shown in the Fig 6.2. As well as the boundary condition values are shown in the table 6.1 Fig 6.3 Boundary condition of the frame Table 6.1 Boundary conditionDESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITLoad200NPoisson ratio0.3(no unit)Young’s modulus2×10?5 6.3 ANALYSIS SETUP A frame is taken into account and it is assumed to be simply supported beam. . Further frame is meshed by means of coarse mesh. Afterwards one end is fixed and another is supported by a roller. Then the values of Poisson ratio and young’s modulus are set. Load is applied and the result is noted. The optimum results stress and deformation value is placed and shown in the table. Table 6.2 frame mesh attributes StatisticsMesh methodCOURSEElement size0.0014 mNo. of elements57700No. of nodes46622 FRAME STRESSMin0.0011Max185.68 .6.4 SOLUTION Further the load is applied on the frame, maximum stress, strain and deformation is calculated. Comparing the value of maximum stress value which is less than the yield stress value of the given material, the design is said to be safe. CHAPTER 7 RESULT ANALYSIS 7.1 FEA RESULT A frame is taken in account and it is assumed to be simply supported beam. One end is fixed and another is supported by a roller. Further frame is meshed by means of coarse mesh. Then the values of Poisson ratio and young’s modulus are set. Load is applied and the result is noted.By following the procedure mentioned above, The load is set to 200 N, and the Poisson ratio is 0.3, young’s modulus E=2×10?5 .And the material of the frame taken as cast iron. Then the load of 200 N is applied equally on the frame ,then the results of the frame, stress is 185.68 N/mm 2.In the results the value of the yielding stress value less than the finite element values of the stress, so the design is safe. comparsion of maximum stress value of the frame with theoretical result is shown in Table 7.1 Fig. 7.1 Frame load is applied Fig. 7.2 equivalent stress Fig. 7.3.Total deformation COMPARISION OF THEORETICAL CALCULATION WITH FEA ANALYSIS RESULT OF FRAME Table 7.1 comparison of ANSYS and theoretical result of frame DESCRIPTIONANALISIS RESULTTHEORETICAL RESULTLOAD200 N200 NMAXIMUM STRESS185.68 N/ mm2 168 N/mm2 CHAPTER –8 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT8.1 MECHANISM USED Table 8.1 Various mechanism MECHANISM PURPOSE1.SINGLE SLIDING MECHANISMIt is used to operate the mechanical pump and the implanting tool2.LI NING UP MECHANISMTo guide the seedling to the implanter 8.2 MECHANISM USED IN IMPLANTER In seedling implantation, it consists of a implanting tool to dig and to implant the crop into the soil. In the vehicle, it has two implanter and those two operated by means of the single sliding mechanism. The mechanism is used in the vehicle, and lever 1is operates the flapper that opens to plant the onion. Lever 2 used as brake.8.2.1 SLIDING CRANK MECHANISM The main operation takes place in the mechanism is the conversion of rotating motion to reciprocating motion. The utilisation of the mechanism in this project is that the mechanism assist in digging the implanting tool. 8.2.2 LINING UP MECHANISM The power for the mechanism is obtained from the rotation of wheel. Initially the power is transmitted to bevel gear from rotating wheel, the bevel gear converts the power to 90°, thus the required power is obtained and lining up mechanism is done. It is used to rotate and move the potato or onion into the implanting tool on a particular timing. 7.2 PESTICIDE SPRAYING MECHANISM The power to spray the pesticide is obtained from the rotation of wheel. The wheel is rotated by the action of manpower. The wheel is rotated, belt is connected to the wheel and the belt is connected to a single sliding mechanism where it has rotational motion which is transferred to reciprocating motion. The motion is obtained from the mechanical pump, the pump is placed in the tank Thus seed implanter and pesticide sprayer has exceptional influence in agriculture. By using this project one can spare less time for seed implanting and pesticide spraying and additionally reduces the lot of labour cost. It is very much useful for small scale farmers. The maximum stress value of vehicle frame is found out to be 185.68 2 in ANSYS which is less than the yield stress value and the design is said to be safe. 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