· Quran2:191 & 193 – “And kill them whereveryou overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you, andfitnah is worse than killing. And do not fight them at al-Masjid al- Haramuntil they fight you there. But if they fight you, then kill them. Such is therecompense of the disbelievers.
“, “Fight them until there is no more fitnahand until worship is acknowledged to be for Allah . But if they cease, thenthere is to be no aggression except against the oppressors.” 1· Quran3:56 – “And as for those who disbelieved,I will punish them with a severe punishment in this world and the Hereafter,and they will have no helpers.2· Quran9-29 – “Fight those who (do) not believein Allah and not in the Day the Last, and not they make unlawful what Allah hasmade unlawful and His Messenger, and not they acknowledge (the) religion (of)the truth, from those who were given the Scripture, until they pay thewillingly, while they (are) subdued.”3· Quran2:190 – “Fight in God’s cause against those who fight you, butdo not overstep the limits: God does not love those who overstep the limits.
“4 · Quran 4:74 – “Hence, let them fight in God’s cause -all who are willing to barter thelife of this world for the life to come: for unto him who fights in God’scause, whether he be slain or be victorious, We shall in time grant a mightyreward.”5· Quran 8:12 – “When your Lord revealed to the angels: I am with you, therefore makefirm those who believekm . I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Thereforestrike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them.”6· Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book52, Volume 177 – “Allah’s Apostle said,”The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Jews, and the stonebehind which a Jew will be hiding will say. “OMuslim! There is a Jew hiding behind me, so kill him.””7· Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book52, Volume 256 – ” TheProphet passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whetherit was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probabilityof exposing their women and children to danger.
The Prophet replied, “They(i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).” I also heard theProphet saying, “The institution of Hima is invalid except for Allah andHis Apostle.”81 “Surah Al-Baqarah2:191-193”. online.
Available at: https://quran.com/2/191-193?translations=20. Accessed 30/11/17. Thisis an English interpretation of quotes directly from the Noble Quran. Quran.comis a website which was founded and created by Muslims, therefore this shouldmean that this quote is reliable and source is valid because this shows Islamin a negative light, yet these Muslim creators still include it. Whilstattempting to cross reference this information, I have found many otherinterpretations of the Quran which display a more defensive side to violence.For example, one English interpretation if the Quran said that ‘And do notfight them at al-Masjid al- Haram until they fight you there.
‘ There are twocontrasting views of this source, one which shows aggression and a will tofight in the name of Allah whilst one portrays acts of only fighting when thewar was started by the opposition. Therefore, quotes from the Quran may not becompletely useful to provide a deeper understanding of whether Islam is areligion of peace. On the other hand, this may provide us with two verydifferent sides of Islam, one of violence and one of peace. This could providea deeper understanding of the vastness of Islam and the different way peopleinterpret the holy text of Islam. 2″Surah Ali ‘Imran 3:56.
online. Available at: http://islamawakened.com/quran/3/56/default.htm,.Accessed 30/11/17. This quote from the noble Quran is not as disputed asother verses. Many scholars and Arabic interpreters have viewed this text in a similar way. Thiswebsite shows many different translations, all of which in summary have thesame meaning.
Therefore, I believe this interpretation of the verse can bethoroughly trusted because it has cross referenced it’s information with othersources in the hope of producing a well informed document. Although, it ispossible that this website has purposely only shown interpretations of thistext in the hope of presenting a one sided argument. Although, throughextensive cross referencing by myself I have concluded that this verse has beencorrectly translated.3″at-Taubah 9:29″. online. Available at: http://islamawakened.com/quran/9/29/.
Accessed 30/11/17. IslamAwakened has also provided multiple translations ofthe Arabic text which has been withdrawn from the Noble Quran. Theseinterpretations all show the same message, therefore I believe this site to bea reliable source for all knowledge of the Quran. 4 “Qur’an2:190-194”.
online. Berkeley Center. Available at: https://berkleycenter.georgetown.
edu/quotes/qur-an-2-190-194.Accessed 01/12/17. The Berkley Centre is a research centre from Georgetownuniversity, Washington, USA.
It is dedicated to the study of Religion, Ethicsand Politics. Therefore, I have used this source in the hope of showing apositive interpretation of the Quran so that my dissertation is unbiased.Berkeley is a highly respected research centre, therefore this translation ofthe Noble Quran should be trustworthy. Through research into other sites suchas quran.
com, I have noticed that this interpretation is the same.Consequently, I believe Berkley’s interpretation to be a reliable one.5 “Surah4. An-Nisaa, Ayah 74”.
online. Alim. Available at: http://www.alim.org/library/quran/ayah/compare/4/74/be-prepared-for-armed-conflict-(jihad).Accessed 05/12/17.
Alim.org is a website thats core is based around Islamicprinciples and content, this includes multiple translations of the Hadith,Quran and Tafsir. The website shows 5 translations of Surah 4, verse 74.
All ofwhich share content. This means that this information is more reliable. Also,the information shown is subjective as it is a pure translation from the Arabicwritten in the Noble Quran by the Prophet Muhammad. Alim is a website dedicatedto providing correct translations to the Islamic passages. They have referenceda Quran reference by Muhammad Asad, a Jewish born Muslim linguist, who has nohigher form of education as they dropped out of Vienna University. This maysuggest that Asad has no deeper understanding of the Quran and it’s Englishtranslation.
Although, as a Muslim himself we can gain a greater comprehensionof the general interpretation of the noble Quran.6 Shakir,M H. “Verse (8:12) – English Translation”. online.
Corpus Quran. Availableat: http://corpus.quran.com/translation.jsp?chapter=8&verse=12.Accessed 05/12/17.
The information gained from the Corpus Quran is a directtranslation from the Quran, which is originally written in Arabic. Corpus Quranis a linguistic resource which shows in detail the syntax and grammar of allArabic translations. Corpus Quran has collected 7 different translations of theholy text, I have decided to use thetranslation by Muhammad Habib Shakir, this is because Shakir was Sudans supremejudge for four years and also dean of Alexandria Scholars. This makes him areliable source as this means that he has experience living inside of anIslamic country. And therefore has a knowledge of the Arabic language thatforeigners may not comprehend.
Although it is thought that it is possible thatthe translation by Shakir was actually written by Mohammedali Habib Shakir, ofthe house of Habib. The house of Habib was a wealthy Pakistani family, it foundedthe Habib university. In regards to this, both possible interpreters lived forthe majority of their life in Muslim countries, this means that they would havehad a deep understanding of the Quran, and it shows that the quotation used canbe trusted.7″Sahih al-Bukhari”. online.
Sahih-Bukhari. Available at: https://www.sahih-bukhari.com/Pages/Bukhari_4_52.php.Accessed 07/12/17. Sahih-Bukhari is a website dedicated to providing Englishtranslations of the originally Arabic Sahih-Bukhari.
Although not an officialwebsite, it is a website which contains translations of all of the SahihBukhari. I have done cross referencinginto this same Volume and have found that other sites have the sameword-for-word translation of the Arabic text. This tells me as the author ofthis dissertation that the text is reliable because it follows the vastmajority of translations.8 “Fightingfor the Cause of Allah (Jihaad)”. online.
TheReligionOfPeace. Available at: https://www.thereligionofpeace.com/quran/bukhari/052-sbt.htm.
Accessed 07/12/17. Religion of Peace is a right wing website that couldpossibly provide a one sided opinion on the state of Islam, its core purpose isto provide the public with a “real” view of the Islamic religion. Therefore, Iviewed it as potentially unreliable and consequently decided to cross referencethis information with information from https://muflihun.com/bukhari/52/256, an Islamic website which provides multiple verses from Islamic literature.Their translation was the same as The Religion of Peace, so I believe thisinterpretation to be correct.